Paul Gray Hoffman (1891-1974) was born in 1891 in Western Springs,
Illinois. His father was a "moderately successful" inventor. He
attended the University of Chicago for a year but had to leave for
financial reasons, and he got a job as a salesman for Halladay cars.
His sales technique was to ask local bankers who they knew who would be
able to afford one. He moved to Los Angeles in 1911 and joined the
Studebaker Corporation, where he became the manager of its retail and
wholesale division. After serving in the Army in World War I, he
purchased the Los Angeles retail branch of Studebaker in 1919. (Paul G.
Hoffman is Dead at 83; Led Marshall Plan and U.N. Aid. By Alden
Whitman. New York Times, Oct. 9, 1974.) He was a junior member of the
Albert Russell Erskine, the head of Studebaker, when he and Albert
Lasker first met. Eventually, Hoffman became president of the
Studebaker Corporation from 1935-1948; president of the Ford Foundation
from 1950 to 1953; and Chairman of the Board of Studebaker from 1953 to
1956. He was a delegate to the United Nations from 1956 to 1957, and
managing director of the UN Special Fund (later called the UN
Development Program) from 1959 to 1972. His first wife Dorothy Brown
died in 1961, and he married Mary Lasker's close friend Anna Lederer
Rosenberg in 1963.
Field, Glore & Co., Lehman Brothers, Goldman, Sachs & Co, and Hayden, Stone & Co. underwrote the reorganization of Studebaker and installed Paul G. Hoffman as its president. (Studebaker Plans Approved By Court. New York Times, Jan. 29, 1935.) Charles F. Glore of Field, Glore and John Hertz of Lehman Brothers joined the Studebaker board. (Join Studebaker Board. New York Times, Sep. 29, 1935.) Field retired from banking in 1935. (Marshall Field to Leave Banking. New York Times, Jun. 29, 1935.) Field, Glore changed its name to Glore, Forgan in 1937. (Banking Firm to Change. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1936.) Its chairman, James Russell Forgan, who became a partner in 1930, served in the European theater of the Office of Strategic Services during World War II, and was chairman of the two committees that prepared the planning documents for the creation of the C.I.A. He was a 1922 Graduate of Princeton. (J. Russell Forgan Dead At 73; Banker Was Official of O.S.S. New York Times, Feb. 1, 1974.) Field, Glore & Co. financed Tobacco & Allied Stocks in 1929. In 1941, Joseph F. Cullman Jr. bought control of Benson & Hedges stock from Tobacco and Allied Stocks, and in 1942 was elected Chairman of the Board of Benson & Hedges (Elected to Chairmanship Of Benson & Hedges. New York Times, Feb. 12, 1942.) In 1953, the boards of directors of Benson & Hedges and Philip Morris agreed to a merger of the two firms. Glore, Forgan & Co. and Lehman Brothers continued to finance Philip Morris, and Forgan attended its board meetings in 1959. Edward Lasker joined the board of Philip Morris in 1960. He was an old friend of the Cullmans.
Hoffman founded the CED in 1942, and was its Chairman from 1942 to
1948. Other founding members included William Benton; Marion B. Folsom,
Chairman from 1950 to 1953 and later Secretary of Health, Education and
Welfare in the Eisenhower administration; and Eric A. Johnston, a
member of the ASCC takeover group. James D. Zellerbach was Chairman
from 1955 to 1957, and Donald K. David, Dean of Harvard University,
Trustee of the Ford Foudation and Carnegie Institute, was Chairman from
1957 to 1959. "The Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for
Economic Development is the select inner-group which actually runs the
CED." In 1957, these included Frank Altschul, William Benton, Donald K.
David, and Philip L. Graham. J.
Irwin Miller, Chairman of the Board of
Cummins Engine Co., was a member of the CED's Commission on Money and
Credit, set up in 1957. (The Invisible Government, by Dan Smoot, 1962.)
In 1947, Henry P. Bristol, President of Bristol-Meyers Co.; S. Sloan
Colt, President of the Bankers Trust Co.; John M. Hancock, partner of
Lehman Brothers; and Francis T. Spaulding, New York State Commissioner
of Education were elected trustees. Prof. Theodore E. Yntema of the
University of Chicago was the CED's research director. (Recession in
U.S. Held Not Started. New York Times, Apr. 19, 1947.)
In 1958, members of the Public Policy Committee of the Advertising Council included Hoffman; Kuhn, Loeb partner Benjamin J. Buttenweiser; John J. McCloy; Eugene Meyer; Elmo Roper; and Howard A. Rusk. (The Invisible Government, by Dan Smoot, 1962.)The Invisible Government / Raymond W. Jensen website (pdf, 124pp)
A native of Australia, Fletcher worked his way up the corporate ladder at Studebaker and became international vice president of the firm just before World War II. "At Studebaker, Fletcher was able to learn the automobile industry, travel the globe and befriend the president of Studebaker, Paul Hoffman. It was Paul Hoffman who requested Fletcher be given leave from Studebaker to join United China Relief Inc. There, he became the Executive Vice Chairman of United China Relief Inc., in 1942, and helped raise over 7 million dollars for the Chinese allies of the United States."
"In the year 1942, Fletcher also joined the Committee for Economic Development (CED), and served as its Field Director from 1942 to 1943. In New York from 1943 to 1946 Fletcher served as the executive director of the Committee and from 1947 to 1952 he was a trustee... a position which he held until he was asked to join the Ford Foundation in 1951." He became President of Encyclopedia Britannica Films from 1946 to 1951 at the request of the encyclopedia's publisher, William Benton, who was also Vice Chairman of the CED. In 1951 he became president of the Ford Foundation's Fund for Adult Education, which funded the first 30 ETV stations in the US. In 1964 he became CEO and Director of Educational Television Stations of the National Association for Educational Broadcasters, which founded the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. (From "A Guide to the Papers of C. Scott Fletcher," National Public Broadcasting Archives, University of Maryland Libraries.)C. Scott Fletcher Papers / National Public Broadcasting Archives (pdf, 8pp)
Lyndon Johnson's White House aide, S. Douglass Cater, was Fletcher's agent in passing the legislation that created the Corporation for Public Broadcasting: "Cater persuaded LBJ to call John Gardner, president of the Carnegie Corp. of New York, who agreed to finance the commission.. Cater got LBJ to endorse the idea in these words: 'our security depends on the enlightenment of our citizens,... our freedom depends on the communication of ideas through many channels..." [of course it was just another propaganda organ for the elites to brainwash the public -cast] "Dean Coston of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and Nick Zapple of Sen. John Pastore's staff promptly organized a bill incorporating many of the commission's recommendations... Though new legislation often takes years, the bill went through the long legislative process with amazing speed." (Cater: field general in the 1960s campaign for federal aid, by Bill Harley. Current 1998 Oct.)Cater obituary / Current 1998
In 1928, Albert Lasker donated $1 million to the University of Chicago medical faculty to study aging, geriatrics, and degenerative diseases, and he was a trustee of the university from 1937 to 1942. In 1929, Hutchins was a member of the Advisory Council of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, which was chaired by William H. Welch, Skull & Bones 1870. Robert Maynard Hutchins was president and later chancellor of the University of Chicago from 1929 until 1951. Hutchins then became associate director of the Ford Foundation (with Albert Lasker's old crony Paul Hoffman) in 1951, and became president of its Fund for the Republic in 1954. In 1959 he founded the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions in Santa Barbara, California as the FFR's main activity. And, Hutchins was chairman of the Board of Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica and a director of Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. from 1943 to 1974. Hutchins was a member of Wolf's Head at Yale; he slapped Charles Louis Palms Jr. of Detroit. (Tap Day Exercises Are Held At Yale. New York Times, May 20, 1921.) William Benton, the owner of Encyclopedia Britannica, was Hutchins's former classmate, and he and Benton organized the "Great Books Seminars" at the University of Chicago.Hutchins bio from Encyclopedia Britannica / University of Pennsylvania
Members of the Ford family and the Ford Motor Company on its board of trustees included Henry Ford II, Chairman of the Board, Ford Motor Company (1943-76); and Benson Ford, Vice President, Ford Motor Company (1947-76). In 1953, the trustees chose Bethuel M. Webster Jr. as counsel to its Fund for the Republic, with Paul G. Hoffman as Chairman. (Security With Freedom and Justice. The Ford Foundation.) Webster was counsel to the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, and former members of his law firm were directors of the company. In 1961, Webster and J. Irwin Miller, chairman of Cummins Engine Company, were elected trustees of the Ford Foundation. (Ford Fund Elects Two. New York Times, Jun. 27, 1961.) In 1970, Seattle lawyer James R. Ellis, and Walter A. Haas Jr., president of the Levi Strauss Company, replaced Webster and Stephen D. Bechtel as trustees. (Lawyer and Manufacturer Join Ford Foundation Board. New York Times, Dec. 20, 1970.) Other trustees of the Ford Foundation (to 1976) included James F. Brownlee, a partner of J.H. Whitney & Co. and Chairman of the Board of the Minute Maid Corporation (1953-60); John Cowles, President of the Minneapolis Star and Tribune Company (1950-68); H. Rowan Gaither, Jr. (1953-61), a founder of the RAND Corporation in 1948; John J. McCloy (1953-65); Roy E. Larsen (1957-69) and Hedley Donovan, Editor-in-Chief (1975- ) of Time Inc; William H. Donaldson, director of Philip Morris (1970- ); and Andrew F. Brimmer (1974- ). (Trustees of the Ford Foundation). McGeorge Bundy, Skull & Bones 1940, who was Dean of Harvard University from 1953 to 1961, approved Carl Seltzer's research applications to the Tobacco Industry Research Council in 1958 and 1959. After a stint as presidential advisor from 1961 to 1966, Bundy became President of the Ford Foundation from 1966 to 1979. He was succeeded by Franklin A. Thomas, who was a director of Cummins Engine Company and CBS, and a crony of Benno Schmidt.Security With Freedom and Justice / Ford Foundation
Directors of the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic included
Chester Bowles (1954-1958); New
Jersey Rep. Clifford Case (1953-1955),
who in 1955 was elected to the US Senate; Paul G. Hoffman (1952-1961);
Herbert E. Lehman (1956-1961), New York Governor whose wife Edith
Altschul was the sister of Mary Lasker's crony Frank Altschul; J.
Howard Marshall (1956-1961); pollster Elmo Roper (1952-1961); and James
D. Zellerbach, a Hoffman crony from the Marshall Plan (1952-1956).
(Fund for the Republic Board of Directors; Fund for the Republic
History. Princeton University.) "In addition to Mr. Hoffman, the
directors of the Fund for the Republic are: James F. Brownlee, partner,
J.H. Whitney & Company, New York; Huntington Cairns, lawyer,
Washington; Charles W. Cole, president, Amherst College, Amherst,
Mass.; Russell L. Dearmont, lawyer, St. Louis; Richard J. Finnegan,
consulting editor, The Chicago Sun Times, Chicago; Erwin N. Griswold,
dean, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Mass.; William H. Joyce Jr.,
chairman, Joyce Inc., Pasadena, Calif.; Meyer Kestnbaum, president,
Hart, Schaffner and Marx, Chicago; M. Albert Linton, chairman,
Provident Mutual Life Insurance Company, Philadelphia; John Lord
O'Brian, attorney, Washington; Jubal R. Parten, president, Woodley
Petroleum Company, Houston, Tex.; Elmo Roper, marketing consultant, New
York; George N. Schuster, president, Hunter College, New York; Eleanor
Bumstead Stevenson, Oberlin, Ohio; James D. Zellerbach, president,
Crown Zellerbach Corporation, San Francisco." (Ford Unit to Study
Liberties With Grant of $15,000,000. New York Times, Feb. 26, 1953.)
The Zellerbach Family Fund supported Stanton Glantz's 1984 anti-smoking hate propaganda film, "Death in the West."Curriculum for "Death in the West" / UCSF
The Fund for the Republic Inc., Board of Directors,1972: Robert M.
Hutchins, Chairman; J.R. Parton, Vice Chairman; Ralph E. Ablon, Joseph
Antonow, Harry S. Ashmore, Blair Clark, Ramsey Clark, Patrick F.
Crowley, Fagan Dickson, James
H. Douglas Jr.,
James C. Downs Jr., Joseph W. Downs, Arnold M.
Grant, Vesta Hutchins, Francis J. Lally, Edward Lamb, Eulah C. Laucks,
Wilbur Price Laughlin, Morris L. Levinson, J. Howard Marshall, Frances
McAllister, Stewart Mott, Paul Newman, Seniel Ostrow, Bernard Rapoport,
Eleanor B. Stevenson, Bernard Weissbourd, Harold Willens. Also,
Fellows, Consultants and Staff of the Center for the Study of
Democratic Institutions. They were already busy in "the field of
dietary reprogramming." (The World Diet Revolution. By Alexander
Comfort, M.D. Center Report, Center for the Study of Democratic
Institutions, Aug. 1973, pp. 35-36.)
Richard Kluger noted that anti-smoker Ernst Wynder's American Health Foundation had a location "in Ford
Foundation bldg in NYC," which is at 320 East 43rd Street. This
building was constructed between 1963 and 1968, and AHF correspondence
began listing this address around 1978. (Richard Kluger interview with
Dietrich Hoffmann, May 31, 1991, from his notes for the book "Ashes to
Ashes"; Address shown, Richard B. Klarberg of AHF to Robert B.
Seligman, Vice President of Research and Development, Philip Morris,
May 12, 1978.)
Time director Maurice T. Moore, partner of Cravath, Swain & Moore and brother-in-law of Henry R. Luce, was a director of the Studebaker-Packard Corporation from 1935-48. Roy E. Larsen, the president of Time, Inc., was elected a trustee of the Ford Foundation in 1957. And, Paul G. Hoffman was a member of the board of directors of Time, Inc. when Luce died in 1967.
New Jersey governor Robert B. Meyner cooperated in the scheme of FCC Commisioner Newton Minow and others with connections to the Ford Foundation to seize a TV station on behalf of public broadcasting. Meyner was married to the former Helen Day Stevenson, daughter of William Stevenson, a former president of Oberlin College. Her mother, Eleanor Bumstead Stevenson, had been a director of the Fund For the Republic from 1952 to 1961.The Fairy Tale of John Banzhaf and the "Fairness Doctrine"
June 8, 1964, Meyner was chosen to administer the Cigarette Advertising Code (its first and only administrator). In his testimony to the US Senate Committee on Commerce, March 30, 1965, Chairman Warren Magnuson (D-WA) asked, "Do you have a prepared statement?" Meyner replied, "Yes, sir. I have with me Mr. Joseph Hoffman." (Hill & Knowlton memo, Jun. 8, 1964; Report of Proceedings. Hearing held before Committee on Commerce, S. 559 and S. 547, Bills to Regulate Labeling of Cigarettes, and for Other Purposes. March 30, 1965, p. 27.) Perhaps this was an inside joke.Meyner Selected, 1964 / UCSF
Hon. and Mrs. Robert B. Meyner were members of the Benefit Committee of Project HOPE in 1964, along with Mrs. Albert D. Lasker, Mrs. William S. Paley, and Mrs. Lowell P. Weicker (p. 12).Project HOPE, 1964 / UCSF
The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University was established by the Ford Foundation. Frank Stanton, the president of CBS from 1946 to 1971, was a founding member, chair and trustee from 1953 to 1971; Philip Morris director and Rand Corp. trustee John Reed was a trustee; former University of Chicago president (and Cummins Engine Company director) Hanna Holborn Gray was a Fellow. David A. Hamburg, president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1982 to 1997, was affiliated with CASBS from 1957 to 1958 and 1967 to 1968.
(From Think Tanks: Where the revolution is being planned, by Gary Allen. Originally published in American Opinion, March 1971.) "U.S. News and World Report for December 30, 1955, called Paul Hoffman 'An influential, though unofficial, Presidential advisor' to President Eisenhower. After a business career in which he rose from used car salesman in Los Angeles to drive the Studebaker-Packard Corporation over a cliff into financial collapse, Hoffman had taken on the task of restructuring the Republican Party. How this was accomplished was described in an amazingly revealing article in Collier's magazine for October 26, 1956. Entitled 'How Ike Saved the Republican Party,' the piece tells how Paul Hoffman and a handful of Establishment colleagues took a lifelong Democrat named Eisenhower and obtained the Republican Presidential nomination for him. It details how he and a coterie of Insiders literally stole the nomination from Senator Robert Taft, and how Hoffman was leading a fight to purge conservatives from the Republican Party. As Paul Hoffman put it: 'The GOP has finally rid itself of the Taft incubus, and our job now is to get rid of all the Taft adherents.'"Allen / John Birch Society
Euro-federalists financed by US spy chiefs. By Ambrose Evans-Pritchard. The Telegraph 2000 Sep 19. "Declassifed American government documents show that the US intelligence community ran a campaign in the Fifties and Sixties to build momentum for a united Europe. It funded and directed the European federalist movement... One memorandum, dated July 26, 1950, gives instructions for a campaign to promote a fully fledged European parliament. It is signed by Gen. William J. Donovan, head of the American wartime Office of Strategic Services, precursor of the CIA... The vice chairman was Allen Dulles, the CIA director in the Fifties. The board included Walter Bedell Smith, the CIA's first director, and a roster of ex-OSS figures and officials who moved in and out of the CIA. The documents show that ACUE financed the European Movement, the most important federalist organization in the post-war years. In 1958, for example, it provided 53.5 per cent of the movement's funds. The European Youth Campaign, an arm of the European Movement, was wholly funded and controlled by Washington... ACUE's funding came from the Ford and Rockefeller foundations as well as business groups with close ties to the US government. The head of the Ford Foundation, ex-OSS officer Paul Hoffman, doubled as head of ACUE in the late Fifties..."Evans-Pritchard / The Telegraph 2000
"The American Committee on United Europe announced yesterday that Mrs. Albert D. Lasker, Mrs. John J. McCloy and Ernest A. Gross had been elected to the committee's board of directors. Mrs. Lasker, president of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, also is a director of the American Cancer Society and of the Menninger Foundation. Mrs. McCloy, wife of the former United States Commissioner to Germany, is a member of the board of governors of the National Red Cross and of the board of managers of Bellevue Hospital. Mr. Gross, partner in the New York law firm of Gross & Hyde, has served in the Department of State and as deputy representative of the United States to the United Nations." (Plan for United Europe. New York Times, March 28, 1954, pg. 21.)
The Marshall Plan Myth, by Jeffrey Tucker. The Ludwig von Mises Institute. The Free Market 1997 Sep;15(9). "Marshall himself played the role of a patsy, delivering prepackaged speeches written by the players behind the plan. His original pitch, given at Harvard, was for money to end 'hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.' But the real upshot of the Marshall Plan was a political maneuver to loot American taxpayers to keep influential American corporations on the government dole. The Plan's legacy was the egregious and perpetual use of foreign aid for domestic political and economic purposes...
"Truman had plenty of co-conspirators, men who have gone down in history as the architects of the original New World Order. Fabled establishmentarians Averell Harriman and Charles Kindleberger were central figures. But it was Dean Acheson, undersecretary of state and the most menacing statist of the immediate post-war era, who concocted the plan to make the wartime empire permanent. Acheson persuaded Navy secretary James Forrestal and domestic fixer Clark Clifford to show Truman how he could elevate a political scam like foreign aid into a mighty ideological struggle on the global stage.
"A little-known business group, founded in 1942 and called the Committee for Economic Development, was elevated into a think tank for a new international order -- the economic counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. The committee's founders were the heads of the top steel, automotive, and electric industries who had benefitted from the New Deal's corporatist statism. Its membership overlapped with the farther left National Planning Association, which was unabashedly national socialist in ideological orientation...
"Leading the corporate charge for secure profits was Will Clayton, the Texas cotton impresario whose business was about to experience a remarkable tax-subsidized boom... Nothing was left to chance. Acheson worked with the established corporate elites and the State Department to create a supposed grass-roots organization called 'Citizens' Committee for the Marshall Plan.' As many as one thousand speakers representing the group toured the country to whip up support. It also ghost-wrote Congressional testimony from other organizations on behalf of the aid package. As Averell Harriman told several European ambassadors during a visit to the British embassy, they haven't seen anything compared with the 'flood of organized propaganda which the Administration is about to unloose.'
"It was left to Will Clayton to make the economic case. Perversely, he touted the Marshall Plan as the triumph of 'free enterprise.' [Clayton was the business partner of MD Anderson, for whom the cancer center at the University of Texas is named. -cast]
"Taking a leaf from the Roosevelt playbook, Truman bypassed the usual bureaucracy and established a new bureau -- the Economic Cooperative Administration -- to distribute the aid. It too was staffed by the heads of major industrial-corporate interests who stood to benefit at public expense. Paul Hoffman headed the group and passed out billions to well-heeled corporate powers... The result was the largest peacetime transfer of wealth from the taxpayers to corporations until that point in U.S. history. And it wasn't only dollars that were exported. Through a massive and tax-funded 'technical expertise program,' European businesses came to the U.S. to take lessons in management practices, visiting mostly unionized automobile companies, electric utility plants, and huge farm operations -- the most socialistic of U.S. sectors.
"These were mere bubbles of prosperity, forced investment created through insider deals of the worst sort. Indeed, Hoffman worked under the constant fear that the racketeering would come to the surface. He feared some enterprising journalist might expose the whole thing, hearings would follow, and the plan would be discredited. That never happened."Tucker / The Ludwig von Mises Institute
Social Networks and Country-to-Country Transfer: Dense and Weak Ties in the Cross-National Diffusion of Ideas and Practices, by Marie-Laure Djelic. "The chief administrator of the ECA, Paul Hoffman - former Chairman of the Studebaker Corporation - had been very active during the New Deal. In 1942, he was one of the key founding members of the Committee for Economic Development. This Committee had been created as a joint initiative of progressive businessmen and the American Secretary of Commerce, Jesse Jones. Its agenda was to involve the American business in national planning for the postwar period and to determine the conditions necessary to preserve full employment after the end of the war. The group of progressive businessmen who made up the CED had come to terms with the New Deal and with the Keynesian revolution and they accepted a degree of government intervention in the economy [snort - as long as it was to their advantage -cast]... In 1948, Paul Hoffman drew upon the CED to staff the ECA. Averell Harriman, partner in the Wall Street firm of Brown Brothers, Harriman, became the ECA Special Representative to Europe. William Foster, Harriman's deputy, had been president of a steel products company and a member of the CED. Howard Bruce, deputy administrator in Washington had been director and board member of several large business firms. The man who headed the French mission, David Bruce, was a Baltimore businessman. James Zellerbach, in Italy, had been board chairman of the Crown Zellerbach Corporation and also a member of the CED.
"During his stay in Washington, Jean Monnet had been in more or less direct contact with a lot if not with all members of the CED and more generally with American businessmen involved in the war effort. Paul Hoffman and Averell Harriman were in particular two of his close acquaintances. This group was therefore a key element in the American side of the bridging network." Monnet, officially the head of the French Supply Council (CFA), also developed ties with Robert Nathan of the US War Production Board; George Ball, a lawyer employed by the CFA; Eugen Rostow; and Harvard Law School antitrust specialist Robert Bowie, who in 1948 became General Counsel to the American High Commissioner in Germany, John McCloy: "He had met Jean Monnet and worked with him in the 1930s when the latter was an investment banker with the American firm of Blair and Company. Dwight Morrow, a Morgan Banker who later became American Ambassador to Mexico, was an old professional acquaintance of Jean Monnet from the late 1920s. Morrow had significant clout in Washington and he was also the open door to the Morgan world and networks. Dean Acheson and after him John Foster Dulles were two powerful Secretaries of State of the Eisenhower era. Both were closely related, through previous professional and personal interactions with Jean Monnet. To these politicians and statesmen should be added the names of a few star journalists - such as Walter Lippman, who wrote in the New Republic and in the New York Herald Tribune, James Reston from the New York Times or Katherine and Philip Graham from The Washington Post."Djelic / Norwegian School of Management BI
The eight-member ECA advisory committee on fiscal and monetary
problems chosen by Hoffman consisted of E.E. Brown, chairman of the
First National Bank, Chicago; W. Randolph Burgess, vice
chairman of the National City Bank; Jay E. Crane, director of the
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey; Joseph M. Dodge, president of the
Detroit Bank; Allan Sproul, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of
New York; Walter W. Stewart, head of the Institute of Advanced Study at
Princeton; and John Williams, professor of political science at Harvard
and economic advisor to the New York Federal Reserve. George L. Harrison, chairman
of the New York Life Insurance Company, was its head. (Hoffman Picks
Advisors. New York Times, May 22, 1948.)
In 1948, W. Averell Harriman, S&B 1913, who was
ambassador-at-large to Western Europe of the ECA, named Langbourne M. Williams,
president of Freeport Sulphur, a member of his Paris headquarters
staff. Alfred Friendly was appointed public relations officer.
(Finletter Appointed. New York Times, May 20, 1948.)
David K.E. Bruce was with W.A.
Harriman & Co., Inc. in 1929.
(Form Huge Concern to Aid Air Industry. New York Times, Mar. 6, 1929.)
In 1930, he was one of the early tenants at 1 Beekman Place, which was
built by the father of E.P.A. Administrator Christine
Todd Whitman for John D. Rockefeller Jr. Its other early tenants
included William J. Donovan; former N.Y.C. Police Commissioner Arthur Woods; Edith M.K. and
Maude A.K. Wetmore, daughters of the late U.S. Sen. George Peabody Wetmore,
Skull & Bones 1867, whose fortune came from the "China
trade" (3 Large Apartments Sold. New York Times, May 13, 1930); Mrs.
Joseph E. Willard, daughter of the Confederate spy and mother-in-law of
Kermit Roosevelt of C.I.A. fame, also Charles A. Blackwell of Redmond
& Co., Herbert Satterlee, and Howard P. Homans (Mrs. Joseph E.
Willard Buys 31 Rooms in 1 Beekman Place. New York Times, May 28,
1930); Archibald B. Roosevelt (Cooperatives Sold. New York Times, Jun.
5, 1930); and George de Cuevas (Buys Suite in 1 Beekman Place. New York
Times, Jun. 11, 1930). His brother, James
C. Bruce, was a director of
General American Investors and Loew's Corporation. Howard Bruce was
Ailsa Mellon, heiress of the
Mellon fortune, was David K.E. Bruce's first wife. Mrs. Mellon Bruce
was a benefactor of the Memorial Cancer Center
gift shop. (Plans Advanced for Thrift Shop. New York Times, Jan. 22,
1956.) Their daughter, Audrey Mellon Bruce, married Stephen
Currier, who was a major funding source for Mary Woodard Lasker's beautification projects.
"The Georgetown Ladies Social Club: An Intimate Chronicle by C. David Heymann, examines the female power in Georgetown, over the past 50 years, through the lives of five women: Katherine Graham, Pamela Harriman, Lorraine Cooper, Sally Quinn and Evangeline Bruce. 'The Georgetown Ladies Social Club' was a term coined by President Ronald Reagan to identify an elite corps of prominent and powerful Washington women - all of whom happened to reside in Georgetown. Evangeline Bruce once served in London OSS headquarters and later married her boss, David Bruce, head of OSS London, also ambassador to France. Sally Quinn's father was General William Quinn, interim SSU head before the CIA was formed, and Washington Post owner, Katherine Graham resided in General Donovan's former Georgetown house." (Book Notes. The O.S.S. Society, Inc., Jan. 2002.)Newsletter, Jan. 2002 / The O.S.S. Society, Inc. (pdf, 4pp)
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (1888-1979) laid the foundation for the European Economic Community. He was born in Cognac, and travelled the world selling brandy until becoming an international banker. PBS's biography says that "So extenive and far-flung were Monnet's connections, and so hard did he work them to such productive purpose, that he probably should also be remembered, in today's parlance, as the father of networking." He met John Foster Dulles at the Versailles Conference, and was appointed deputy secretary general of the League of Nations in 1919. "He had easy access to Roosevelt's inner circle," and is credited with coming up with the slogan that the US should become the "arsenal of democracy," a pretty euphemism for cannon-fodder for the wealthy.Monnet Bio / PBS (pdf)
"Still in his twenties during World War I, Monnet was the French representative on a joint allied supply commission that represented an unprecedented exercise in Anglo-French economic planning and cooperation. By the end of the war, he was firmly committed to economic and political collaboration among the major powers, and served five years as Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations with principal responsibility for economic affairs...
"In 1923, Monnet left the League and went back to private business. But he was soon drawn once more into public policy, now as an international banker. For he became the European partner of Blair and Company, a leading Wall Street investment bank that worked closely with Chase, Bankers Trust, and other large American commercial banks. Blair was deeply involved in European lending, and Monnet led private-public League-sanctioned stabilization programs in Poland and Romania. In the early years of the Depression, Blair was involved in a bitter battle with the Bank of America, with which it had merged, and Monnet was driven out of the new firm. But through his own consulting firm he remained a fixture on Wall Street and in international finance, negotiating loans and other business in China, Europe, and North America.
"Apart from gaining him international experience, his financial activities brought Monnet into close contact with America's most important financial, political, and legal figures. Monnet indeed spent the bulk of the interwar period in the United States, along the Wall Street-Washington axis of America's economic and political establishment. He consulted frequently with official and financial America, advising the Roosevelt administration on lend-lease and American bankers on international affairs. His activities drew him into close contact with a generation of the country's interwar and postwar leaders, many of whom became good friends: senior Morgan partners Thomas Lamont and Dwight Morrow, Averill Harriman, John McCloy, Dean Acheson. Monnet had especially close ties to John Foster Dulles, then a prominent Wall Street lawyer: they worked together on the Polish loan program, and Dulles bankrolled Monnet's New York financial consulting firm." (Chapter IIIB, 1939-1973: Bretton Woods. By Jeff Frieden, Mar. 2000.)Frieden / Harvard University (pdf, 48pp)
"Following his resignation as Assistant Secretary General at the League of Nations, Monnet returned to civilian life. Before long he was approached by Blair and Co., a large American investment company, who had negotiated French and other loans on the US markets during the war. In 1926 the French Blair & Co. was established and Monnet was appointed Vice-President. It was while working for Blair that Monnet got to meet or renew acquaintances with some of the big movers in Wall Street, such as John McCloy, Donald Swatland and John Foster Dulles... After the collapse of the Transamerica holding company [which owned the Bank of America], in which Monnet was involved, it was Dulles and Robert Brand of the Lazard Freres financial company who brought his way. Monnet was appointed liquidator of the Kreuger match empire on behalf of foreign investors. Then in 1934, Monnet was asked by the Finance Minister of the Chinese National government, T.V. Soong to assist in bringing foreign investment into China. In 1935 Monnet with George Murnane as his partner set up a financial consultancy company M,M&Co. It was John Foster Dulles who provided the financial backing for this company. The significance of the relationship between Monnet and the Hudson Bay Company was built when Monnet's firm, United Vineyard Proprietors Co., Cognac became the sole supplier of Brandy to HBC for distribution in Canada." (Research of Francois Duchene for his biography of Monnet, Jean Monnet - The First Statesman of Interdependence, Norton 1994.) It also notes that Monnet was involved in the work on the economic clauses of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, which eventually led to World War II.Duchene / Historical Archives of the European Communities (pdf)
Amadeo Peter Giannini, the founder of the Bank of America and
Transamerica in California, dreamed of establishing nationwide branch
banking. He was opposed by the Morgan bankers on Wall Street and their
cronies in the Federal Reserve. He established the Bank of America N.A.
to expand in New York. After its 1931 merger with the Blair National
Bank of New York, he left Elisha Walker and Jean Monnet in charge and
retired, only to discover them proceeding to sabotage his work.
According to "Biography of a Bank" (The Story of the Bank of America,
N.T. & S.A., by Marquis James and Bessie Rowland James. Harper
& Brothers, 1954): "To Giannini, the Walker plan represented a
'conspiracy' to 'steal' Transamerica bit by bit from the stockholders,
tearing it asunder and knocking down its parts at distress prices. This
involved the sale of the insurance companies, the cow bank, the country
banks and securities, domestic and foreign. Nor was that all. It
involved the sale of the Bank of America N.A. in New York (already on
the block), and the securities affiliate Bancamerica-Blair; the Italian
branch banking system, and in time the Bank of America N.T. & S.A.
in California. In effect, these prices would be advertised in advance,
thus further beating down prices when all prices were on the toboggan.
Already, said Giannini, adverse rumors about the Transamerica companies
were being 'deliberately circulated' to further the ends 'of the
conspiracy which I have charged'" (page 324). But the plot was foiled
when a stockholder revolt ousted Walker and Monnet et al. and restored
Giannini. However, the Bank of America N.A. had been merged into the
Federal National City Bank of New York in 1931, without getting a
director on the National City board as a condition. National City
eventually became Citibank, N.A. and is now part of Citigroup.
Elisha Walker was chairman of
Bancamerica-Blair Corporation 1929-32
and Transamerica Corporation 1930-32; then a partner of Kuhn, Loeb
& Company 1933-50. (Elisha Walker, B.A. 1900. Bulletin of Yale
University, Obituary Record of
Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year
1950-1951, pp 45-46.) Mrs. Walker was an activist a Memorial Hospital, N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea
for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)
"'Monnet was above all a public relations man,' say biographers Merry and Serge Bromberger. 'He was particularly close to Harry Hopkins, Roosevelt's right-hand man. Through Hopkins he became President Roosevelt's personal advisor on Europe." (United States of Europe, by William F. Jasper. The New American 1989 Apr 10;5(8).)Jasper / The New American 1989
Jean Monnet was one of the numerous correspondents of Albert Lasker's friend Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, of Kuhn, Loeb and Company, between 1943 and 1968. He was also a correspondent of John Foster Dulles between 1931 and 1959.John Foster Dulles Papers "Ms" / Princeton University
Siegmund George Warburg was a partner of Kuhn, Loeb in the 1950s; his firm, SG Warburg & Co., and Kuhn, Loeb represented each other's interests in London and New York. "The leading theorist of European integration, Jean Monnet, was friends with Donald Swatland of Cravath, Swaine - the lawyers for Kuhn, Loeb. When the ECSC [European Coal and Steel Community] searched for New York financing, Swatland directed it to Kuhn Loeb. Because he was a European partner in an American firm, Siegmund was a major attraction for the ECSC, and Swatland would regard him, Andre Meyer, and Jean Monnet as their era's three leading figures in international finance." American investors were reluctant, and Siegmund had to turn to an insurance company, Metropolitan Life. (The Warburgs, by Ron Chernow. Random House, 1993, pp 612-616.)
John Insley Blair (1802-1899), founder of Blair & Co., was ranked as the 19th richest individual, according to wealth divided by the Gross National Product. He was a trustee of Princeton from 1866 to 1899. He was the President of up to 16 railroads, incluidng the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and the Union Pacific Railroad, extending from the east to Iowa, Wisconsin, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, Missouri and Texas. His son DeWitt Clinton Blair continued his business activities, including gifts to Princeton University, after his death. Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Blair was Mary Ann Kimball.John Insley Blair / Wikipedia
Blair & Co., Inc., was the successor firm of Blair & Co. and
William Salomon & Co. It was in the Blair Building at 24 Broad St.,
New York. Board of Directors: C. Ledyard Blair, Chairman; Elisha
Walker, President; George Armsby, Frank C. Armstrong, William Braden, James C. Brady, Harry Bronner, J.
Cheever Cowdin, John B. Dennis, Heman Gifford, Edward F. Hayes,
Clarence Lewis, George N. Lindsay, Edgar L. Marston, Hunter S. Marston,
Dunlevy Milbank, Alonzo
Potter, Lewis P. Sheldon, Jacques Weinberger, and Graham Youngs.
(Display Ad. Boston Globe, Apr. 5, 1920.)
Paul Hoffman's son Hallock Hoffman was a fellow of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions; former chairman of the Pacifica Foundation; and is a member-director of The Meridian Institute on Governance, Leadership and the Future, a globalist group. His first ex-wife (Elinor) Gene Knudsen Hoffman is a director of the Council on Visionary Policies, and he established the Fielding Graduate Institute in 1974 with his second wife, the late Renata Tesch.Fellows / Western Behavioral Sciences Institute
Hoffman is a Fellow of the International Leadership Forum of the WBSI, along with anti-smoker former FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson, and Daniel Yankelovich, chairman of Public Agenda.Roster of Fellows / International Leadership Forum