The Marshall Field Foundation Inc. and the University of Denver sponsored the creation of NORC: "Harry H. Field, who has been associated with Dr. George Gallup for six years, will have active charge of the Center. He is not related to the Marshall Field family. He organized the British Institute of Public Opinion for Dr. Gallup in 1936 and in 1940 conducted his own survey of sentiment in the Presidential election." F. Douglas Williams, formerly with Elmo Roper; and William Salstrom were asociated with him. Directors included F. Caleb Gates Jr., Chancellor of the University of Denver; Gordon W. Allport, Associate Professor of Psychology at Harvard; Hadley Cantril, director of the Office of Public Opinion Research and a Professor of Psychology at Princeton; Douglas F. Falconer, a director of the Field Foundation; J. Quigg Newton Jr., secretary to the board of trustees of the University of Denver; Samuel A. Stouffer, member of the Central Statistical Board, Washington; and Louis S. Weiss, secretary of the Field Foundation. (Opinion Research Backed by Field. New York Times, Sep. 3, 1941.)
J. Quigg Newton Jr. was a member of Skull & Bones 1933. Weiss was the first cousin of Howard S. and Joseph F. Cullman Jr., later of Philip Morris fame, and his firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison was the longtime attorney for both Tobacco & Allied Stocks and Benson & Hedges. Marshall Field 3d's private banking firm, Field, Glore & Co., had financed Tobacco and Allied Stocks since 1929, of which the Cullmans were directors. When Field retired from banking in 1935, the firm backing them became Glore, Forgan & Co., with J. Russell Forgan of later O.S.S. and C.I.A. fame as a partner. The group took control of Benson & Hedges in 1941, and then of Philip Morris in 1954. Forgan handled Philip Morris's financing and personally attended board meetings.
In 1941, President Roosevelt created the Office of the Coordinator of Information, with Gen. William J. Donovan in charge. In 1942, this was split into the "white" (official) propaganda, which eventually became the Office of War Information, and the "black" (unacknowledgeable) activities, under Donovan's Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The OWI employed Paul Lazarsfeld, Elmo Roper, and Frank Stanton. Donovan's longtime Wall Street crony, John J. McCloy (later president of the Ford Foundation), established the highly secret Psychologic Branch within the War Department General Staff G-2 (Intelligence) organization. William S. Paley [an old friend of Forgan] and Douglass Cater were employed by the Army Psychological Warfare Division.
"At least a half-dozen of the most important centers of U.S. communication research depended for their survival on funding from a handful of national security agencies. Their reliance on psychological warfare money was so extensive as to suggest that the crystallization of mass communications studies into a distinct scholarly field might not have come about during the 1950s without substantial military, CIA, and USIA intervention.
"Major beneficiaries included the Bureau of Applied Social Research, the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, the National Opinion Research Center, the Bureau of Social Science Research, the RAND Corporation, and the Center for International Studies at MIT. Moreover, this list must be regarded as preliminary at this time." (Science of Coercion, by Christopher Simpson. Oxford University Press, 1994.) Of these, NORC, the RAND Corporation, and the ISR have been particularly active in the government's war against smokers.Excerpt, The Science of Coercion / Centre for Research on Globalisation
The American Cancer Society and the Office of War Information: Clifton R. Read had been the first publicity director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer before joining OWI in 1941 (before its formal creation), and he rejoined the American Cancer Society in 1948. In 1952, he was joined by William B. Lewis, formerly head of the Domestic Radio Bureau, who according to 15 resigned writers had a reputation for dishonesty.
NORC was founded in 1941 at the University of Denver by Harry Field, of the Office of War Information. Field was killed in a plane crash in 1946, while traveling to set up similar organizations in other countries, and Clyde W. Hart, "a former University of Iowa sociologist, who had been special administrator to Chester Bowles in the Office of Price Administration and who had worked closely with NORC on several national surveys for OPA during and immediately after the war," took over and moved it to the University of Chicago. (The Central City Conference and the Death of Harry Field, NORC History 2.)NORC History 2 / NORC
"A great deal of important research was done under Clyde Hart's direction, most with grant support from foundations such as Carnegie and Ford. Included among these surveys were Shirley Star's pioneer study of public attitudes toward mental illness, the first occupational prestige survey, early research on race relations, studies of radio listening and television viewing, and the first comprehensive survey of family medical costs. During the McCarthy era, NORC worked closely with and collected the data for Samuel Stouffer on his famous study of Americans' attitudes toward communism, conformity, and civil liberties, and with Paul Lazarsfeld and his colleagues at Columbia on 'The Academic Mind,' a survey of college and university professors on the effects of Senator McCarthy's anti-communist crusade." (Clyde Hart and the Move to Chicago, NORC History 3.)NORC History 3 / NORC
"In 1953 the National Opinion Research Center began a series of surveys separated by five-year intervals on the consumer's use of medical care, the degree of health insurance protection, and expenditures for care (Anderson and Anderson, 1967)." (Dorothy P. Rice. Health Statistics: Past, Present and Future. In: Toward a Health Statistics System for the 21st Century: Summary of a Workshop. National Academy Press, 2001.)
In 1964, the current Director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Ralph Tyler, and its future director, O. Meredith Wilson, were Trustees of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago. Other trustees included D. Gale Johnson, Dean of the Division of Social Sciences at the U. of C. (president); H. Stanley Bennett, Dean of the Pritzker School of Medicine at the U. of C.; banker and real estate economist James C. Downs Jr., senior partner of Downs, Mohl & Co., Chicago; U. of C. political science professor Morton Grodzins; Harry Kalven Jr., U. of C. law professor; Harvard statistician Frederick Mosteller; and future Secretary of State George P. Schultz. Peter H. Rossi was NORC's Director, and Jacob J. Feldman was its Research Director.NORC Trustees, 1964 (at bottom of page) / UCSF
H. Stanley Bennett, Dean of the Division of the Biological Sciences, announced the appointment of Leon Orris Jacobson as Chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago, Nov. 9, 1961. Jacobson was one of the longest-serving members of the Scientific Advisory Board of the TIRC/CTR (1954 to 1992).Bennett announces Jacobson appointment, 1961 / UCSF
Bennett was a Trustee of the Salk Institute, circa 1971. He was then a professor of biological and medical sciences, Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, and Director of The Laboratories of Reproductive Biology at the University of North Carolina. His fellow trustees included John J. McCloy; William Bernbach, President of the advertising firm Doyle, Dane, Bernbach Inc.; Edgar M. Bronfman; former HEW Secretary John W. Gardner; Samuel B. Gould, former president of the Educational Broadcasting Corporation (whom Newton Minow and his Ford Foundation cronies installed as president of New York's Educational Television Channel 13, after which he became Chancellor of the State University of New York from 1964 to 1974); Armand Hammer, Chairman of the Executive Committee; US Senator Jacob K. Javits, R-NY; Robert Manning, Editor in Chief of The Atlantic Monthly; Joseph Elliott Slater, former Director of the International Affairs Program of the Ford Foundation; and former Assistant Surgeon General Norman H. Topping.Salk Institute, ca. 1971 / UCSF
Bennett was one of 41 planning panel chairmen who met at Airlie House in March, 1972, to review the National Cancer Program Plan.NCP Reviewers, 1972 / UCSF
Mosteller was a member of the board of directors of the American Statistical Association in 1964.ASA President to JE Leard of Richmond Times Dispatch, 1964 / UCSF
"In the year 1975-76, the [Harvard] Department of Biostatistics began searching for a new chair. Paul Meier, who was visiting Harvard from the University of Chicago, told Nan Laird that he thought Fred Mosteller would become chair of biostatistics. Nan assured Paul Meier that this would never happen. In February 1977, Fred Mosteller became chair of biostatistics... Professor Mosteller also served as Acting Chair of the Department of Social Relations [in the faculty of Arts and Sciences] and Chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management [at HSPH], making him the only person in Harvard's history to serve as chair of four different departments." (Frederick Mosteller Named First Recipient of the Marvin Zelen Leadership Award. By Sudeshna Adak. Biostat Connections, July 1998, Harvard University.)Mosteller / Harvard University
Mosteller was a member of the "Planning Study for an Ongoing Study of Costs of Environment-Related Health Effects," 1980. Other members included Theodore Cooper, Philip J. Landrigan, Joshua Lederberg, and Arthur C. Upton. Kenneth J. Arrow was the chairman. Mosteller was chairman of a workshop and drafting session on data linkage attended by Landrigan and by Jacob Feldman, Thomas Hodgson, and Dorothy P. Rice of the NCHS, central figures in the Big Lie that smoking is an economic burden to society.Costs of Environment-Related Health Effects, p. 211 / National Academy Press 1981
Mosteller was on the staff of the Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy, Harvard University, John M. Pinney, Skull & Bones 1965, Executive Director, circa 1986.
Mosteller wrote the Foreword of "News and Numbers A Guide to Reporting Statistical Claims and Controversies in Health and Other Fields," by Victor Cohn (Center for Health Communications, Harvard School of Public Health, 1989). Cohn said that Mosteller was his "main mentor and guide in the preparation of this book."News and Numbers, 1989 / UCSF
Shultz taught at MIT from 1948 to 1957, except for a leave of absence in 1955 to serve on the President's Council of Economic Advisors. In 1957, Shultz was Professor of Industrial Relations at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, and eventually became its Dean. "From 1968 to 1969, he was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford." He was US Secretary of Labor from 1969-70, Director of the Office of Management and Budget 1970-1972, and Secretary of the Treasury from 1972-74. He was President and a director of the Bechtel Group from 1974 until 1982, when he left to become Secretary of State until 1989. Shultz was born in 1920 in New York City. (George Shultz. Hoover Institution, accessed 12-17-06.)Shultz bio / Hoover Institution
Shultz was a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust from at least 1975 to 1978.
Shultz was a director of Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. (makers of the famous corporate jets) from 1991 to 1999. Secretary of Defense href="defense.htm#Donald_H._Rumsfeld">Donald Rumsfeld was a director since 1993; Chairman and CEO Theodore J. Forstmann was also a director of General Instrument Corp., where Rumsfeld was Chairman and CEO from 1990 to 1993. Roger S. Penske, CEO of Detroit Diesel who was a director of Philip Morris from 1991 to 1998; former US Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin L. Powell were also directors.Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. 1999 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Shultz was a director of AirTouch Communications from 1994 until it merged with Vodafone in 1999.AirTouch 1998 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Shultz has been a director of Gilead Sciences since 1996. "Dr. Shultz currently serves as a Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution and as director of the Bechtel Group, Inc., the Fremont Group, Inc., Charles Schwab, Inc. and UNext, Inc. Dr. Shultz serves as Chairman of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.'s International Advisory Council." Other directors included Donald Rumsfeld, the Chairman of the Board from 1998 until resiging in 2001, who was a director since 1988; James M. Denny Sr., current Chairman of the Board, a former executive of Donald Rumsfeld's old company, GD Searle; now a managing partner of William Blair Capital Partners and a director of Allstate, who joined in 1996; and Etienne Davignon, Vice-Chairman of Societe Generale de Belgique, a director since 1990.Gilead Sciences 2003 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Shultz has been a director of Charles Schwab Inc. since 1997. Former postmaster general Anthony Frank, also a director of General American Investors, was a fellow director.Charles Schwab Inc. 1998 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Shultz appears to be no longer on the board of directors of UNext, but Kenneth J. Arrow, who was Chairman of the 1980 "Planning Study for an Ongoing Study of the Costs of Environment-Related Health Effects" in which Frederick Mosteller participated, is a member. The company provides online business education for Columbia, Stanford, Chicago, Carnegie Mellon, and the London School of Economics.Board of Directors / UNext
The Tobacco Industry Research Council (TIRC) funded a study which was originally proposed by Elihu Katz, then an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago, then finished by then-graduate student Bruce C. Straits. "Mr. Jacob Feldman, Director of Research, National Opinion Research Center, who has been quite interested in this subject, will also serve as a consultant." The study was "Sociological and Psychological Correlates of Adoption and Discontinuation of Cigarette Smoking."Katz Study Proposal / UCSF
(Katz split to Israel in 1963 and didn't come back until 1978, as a Visiting Professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California until 1992, then headed the Scholars Program at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, 1993-97.)Katz bio / University of Haifa
From 1971 to 1973, Feldman was on the Financial Data Year Planning Subcommittee of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statististics, along with Dorothy P. Rice, a primary originator of the Big Lie that smoking is an economic burden to society. Rice was the Deputy Assistant Commissioner of the Office of Research and Statistics, Social Security Administration.NCHS VHS 1971 Annual Report (pdf, 17pp)
Feldman was a member of the Advisors and Task Force of "Feeling Good," a series of 26 hour-long programs by the Children's Television Workshop, which aired on 250 Public Broadcasting Service TV stations in 1974-75. Joan Ganz Cooney, now a director of Johnson & Johnson, was president of CTW, and Ruby Hearn of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation was director of content development. Other Advisors and Task Force Members included Lester Breslow; Douglass Cater of the Aspen Institute; former Assistant Secretary for Health Philip R. Lee; Charles LeMaistre, Chancellor of of the University of Texas System; Bayless Manning, president of the CFR; Robert Manning, editor of the Atlantic Monthly; Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific American; future Surgeon General Julius Richmond; Steven Schroeder, former head of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, then Medical Director of the George Washington University Health Plan; Victor Weingarten, director of the President's Committee on Health Education; and Ernst Wynder of the American Health Foundation.Feeling Good, circa 1973 / UCSF
Dorothy P. Rice is a current member of the Board of Trustees of NORC. NORC is doing a study called "Uses, and Users, of the Healthy People 2010 Initiatives," funded by the US Department of Health and Human Services.Board of Trustees / NORC
"A report covering physicians' opinions was prepared for the American Cancer Society by National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago." (Abstract of "Smoking and lung cancer - what are doctors thinking? (editorial) Rocky Mountain Med J 1961 Feb;58,24.; in TMSC Checklist, March 1961.)TMSC Library Checklist, March 1961 / UCSF
"National Opinion Research Center** University of Chicago 5720 South Woodlawn Avenue Chicago 37, Illinois 60637 Paul Sheatsley Contract Description: PH-108-66-193 6/13/66 -12/12/67 $141,656 (66) Dr. Dorothy E. Green Description: To carry out surveys of the attitudes, beliefs and behavior regarding smoking and health, among specific groups of professional health workers in the United States." (National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health Contract Projects Active as of Oct. 1, 1967.)NCSH Contract Projects, 1967 / UCSF
NORC did opinion polls of physicians and other health personnel for the National Clearinghouse on Smoking and Health in the latter 1960s.Henke to Austern, 1968 / UCSF
Physicians' Attitudes Toward Their Involvement in Smoking Problems of Patients. DE Green, D Horn. Dis Chest 1968 Sep;54(3):180-185 (incomplete).Green & Horn, 1968 / UCSF
Sen. Samuel J. Ervin Jr. (D-NC) objected to the use of government mail trucks to propagandize about smoking. He protested that "Any doctor who answered that he had ever smoked cigarets, no matter how long ago or how infrequently, and had stopped, no matter what his reason, was classified as a doctor who had quit smoking." And, "Looking beyond the Department of Health, Education and Welfare project against cigarettes, in what direction will they next crusade? To what extreme will this Orwellian horror travel? Are we laying the groundwork for Government propaganda to control other personal habits of the American people? Are we approaching the point at which the kindly benevolent face on the omnipotent television screen, as in the book '1984' looks upon us and gently guides our thoughts down every conceivable avenue that the friendly, benevolent and despotuic government wishes us to go? Or, can we assume this trend will stop with the nice little message on all our Post Office trucks?" (A Study in Governmental Brainwashing: The Nonstatistical Methods Used to Back Up the Department of Health, Education and Welfare Scare Tactics Against Smoking. Congressional Record, Feb. 6, 1968, S 937.)Sen. Sam Ervin, Feb. 6, 1968 / UCSF
US Government Memorandum from Surgeon General William H. Stewart to HEW Secretary, Feb. 8, 1968 [presumably John W. Gardner]. Subject: Poster on Physician Smoking for Use on US Mail Trucks; stating that the Public Health Service's claim that 100,000 physicians had stopped smoking was based on the survey by NORC.Stewart to HEW Secretary, 1968 / UCSF
53,000 posters claiming that "100,000 doctors have quit smoking cigarettes" "went out to the post offices about two weeks before posting date and were ready to go up, but on Jan. 31, Surgeon General William H. Stewart asked the Post Office Department to delay posting long enough to get a sticker printed that would tell the basis for the '100,000 doctors' statement." Most were expected to be posted by Feb. 19 and remain until March 1, when the Red Cross and the Internal Revenue Service were allotted the space. (Poster Drive Hits Smoking -- but Briefly. (Advertising Age, Feb. 19, 1968, p. 10.)Poster Drive Hits Smoking -- but Briefly / UCSF
Presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon on the mail truck controversy: "Question: Do you consider the general philosophy of the type of campaign to sell an idea on the part of the Federal Government agencies such as HEW's use of Post Office trucks and things of this nature to get out the word? Do you consider that uh, good government policy? Is there something that could be dangerous? Nixon: It could be dangerous if it were in the hands of a... a potential dictator type in the Presidency of the United States. Uh, I just don't think we are going to elect that kind of a man... in any event. Uh... I must say that... that I am going to watch very carefully in my administration the use of Voice of America, uh either abroad or in those areas where it could be used at home and the use of all government agencies with this immense power that the Government could have over the minds of people. Uh, I think it's very important not to let that power to be used to influence the people in a way that uh, would not be proper and appropriate to the government function." (Memo quoting transcript of WBT-TV intereview of Nixon in Charlotte, North Carolina. William Kloepfer Jr., Vice President-Public Relationsof the Tobacco Institute, to Chief Executives and General Counsel. Nov. 27, 1968).Kloepfer, Nov. 27, 1968 / UCSF
Public Information Research / Namebase review of: Simpson, Christopher. Science of Coercion: Communications Research and Psychological Warfare, 1945-1960. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
"Communication research is a small academic field that evolved within the social sciences, and is reflected today in the fields of print and broadcast journalism, public relations, and advertising. Its early research was sponsored by government funding for psychological warfare, which reached $1 billion annually in the early 1950s. Carnegie and Ford, working closely with the government, were secondary sources of funding. Behind this money was a massive U.S. intelligence bureaucracy that was honing techniques for clandestine warfare around the globe. Soon it became 'counterinsurgency' and 'special forces,' and now it is called 'low-intensity conflict.'
"The scholars who cashed in thought they were engaged in 'value-free science.' Simpson argues that they actually avoided the consideration of values altogether, and absorbed by default the values of their sponsors. The model for psychological warfare, with all of its research, was one of domination. When the government shifted its focus from anti-Sovietism to Third World manipulation, these scholars failed to notice that their craft was essentially destructive. 'The supposed beneficiaries of U.S.-sponsored psychological warfare in a long list of countries are worse off today than ever before."
COMMENT: And smokers in the United States and elsewhere should be added to their list of victims. The same set of conspirators and criminals are responsible; they merely shifted their target after 1960. Albert and Mary Lasker, and Paul Hoffman and Anna Rosenberg, were a tight little core of activism, and, along with their respective and shared associates, they have created a diabolical machine of health fascism.Simpson / Public Information Research - NameBase