Carcinogenicity of malaria and of some polyomaviruses. V Bouvard, RA Baan, Y Grosse, B Lauby-Secretan, F El Ghissassi, L Benbrahim-Tallaa, N Guha, K Straif; WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group. Lancet Oncol 2012 Apr;13(4):339-340. "An aetiological role of MCV for MCC is supported by a few case—control studies and several case series. Case—control studies reported odds ratios of 2·4—6·6 for serological markers of MCV infection and of 16·9—63·2 for serological markers of viral early gene expression. Because knowledge of other risk factors for MCV infection and MCC is limited, potential confounding could not be ruled out. However, a large number of case series in different populations consistently show the presence of MCV DNA in tumour tissue of most MCC cases (prevalence range, 59—100%)... In most MCV-positive MCCs analysed, the MCV genome was present in one or more copies per cell, was integrated into the cellular genome, and integration appeared to precede clonal expansion of tumour cells. Most MCCs contained mutations within large T-antigen sequences leading to the expression of a C-terminal truncated protein deficient for viral replication.22 Expression of the small and large T-antigens, shown in vitro to have oncogenic properties, has been repeatedly reported in MCC cell lines. Based on “limited evidence” in humans, “inadequate evidence” in experimental animals, and strong mechanistic evidence in humans, MCV was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A)."Bouvard / Lancet Oncol 2012 full article
Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell
H Feng, M Shuda, Y Chang, PS Moore. Science 2008 Feb
22;319(5866):1096-1100. "MCV sequences were detected in 8 of 10 (80%)
MCC tumors but only 5 of 59 (8%) control tissues from various body
sites and 4 of 25 (16%) control skin tissues. In six of eight
MCV-positive MCCs, viral DNA was integrated within the tumor genome in
a clonal pattern, suggesting that MCV infection and integration
preceded clonal expansion of the tumor cells."
Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel
carcinomas and identification of a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. A
Kassem, A Schöpflin, C Diaz, W Weyers, E Stickeler, M Werner, A
Zur Hausen. Cancer Res 2008 Jul 1;68(13):5009-5013. Merkel cell
polyomavirus was found in 30 of 39 (77%) Merkel cell carcinomas.
Merkel cell polyomavirus and Merkel cell carcinoma, France. V
Foulongne, N Kluger, O Dereure, N Brieu, B Guillot, M Segondy. Emerg
Infect Dis 2008 Sep;14(9):1491-1493. MCPyV was found in 8 of 9 patients
with MCC, of whom 2 were immunocompromised.; versus 0 of 15 patients
with diverse proliferative or inflammatory skin or mucosa lesions as
Merkel cell polyomavirus is more frequently present in North
American than Australian Merkel cell carcinoma tumors. KM Garneski, AH
Warcola, Q Feng, NB Kiviat, JH Leonard, P Nghiem. J Invest Dermatol
2009 Jan;129(1):246-248. "16 of 37 Merkel cell carcinoma tumor tissues
were positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA (43%)," 11/16 (69%) from
North America, versus 5/21 (24%) from Australia. "We observed MCPyV in
5 of 8 primary tumors, 3 of 13 recurrences, 7 of 15 nodal metastases,
and in the single studied distant metastasis... The majority of
Australian samples were nodal metastases, whereas most North American
samples were primaries." Also, "most of the Australian tumor specimens
were collected in the 1990’s and most North American specimens were
collected after the year 2000." "MCPyV was not detected in any of the
normal skin DNA, but was present in 2 of 15 SCC tumors (13%)."
Ultrastructural proof of polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma
tumour cells and its absence in small cell carcinoma of the lung. CT
Wetzels, JG Hoefnagel, JM Bakkers, HB Dijkman, WA Blokx, WJ Melchers.
PLoS ONE 2009;4(3):e4958. MCPyV was found in 2/5 Merkel cell carcinomas
and 0/10 small cell lung carcinomas.
Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell
Duncavage, BA Zehnbauer, JD Pfeifer. Mod Pathol 2009 Apr;22(4):516-521.
41 cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (from 29 different patients). Of
these, 20 cases were primary cutaneous tumors, 4 were local
recurrences, and 17 were metastases. 22/29 (76%) were positive for
MCVPS1 (109 bp amplicon).
Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin: pathological and molecular
evidence for a causative role of MCV in oncogenesis. X Sastre-Garau, M
Peter, MF Avril, H Laude, J Couturier, F Rozenberg, A Almeida, F
Boitier, A Carlotti, B Couturaud, N Dupin. J Pathol 2009
May;218(1):48-56. "MCV DNA sequences were found in all ten cases of MCC
and in none of the 1241 specimens of other tumour types. Clonal
integration of MCV into the host genome was seen in all MCC cases and
was checked by FISH in one case. A recurrent pattern of conserved viral
sequences which encompassed the replication origin, the small tumour
(ST), and the 5' part of the large tumour (LT) antigen DNA sequences
was observed. Both ST and LT viral sequences were found to be
significantly expressed in all MCCs. Neither recurrent site of
integration nor alteration of cellular genes located near the viral
sequences was observed. The tight association of MCV with MCC, the
clonal pattern of MCV integration, and the expression of the viral
oncoproteins strongly support a causative role for MCV in the tumour
Merkel cell polyomavirus strains in patients with merkel cell
carcinoma. A Touzé, J Gaitan, A Maruani, E Le Bidre, A
Doussinaud, C Clavel, A Durlach, F Aubin, S Guyétant, G Lorette,
P Coursaget. Emerg Infect Dis 2009 Jun;15(6):960-962. 21 of 32 (66%)
samples of Merkel cell carcinoma with suitable quality DNA were
positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA. All 12 frozen samples were
positive versus only 9/20 (45%) of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded
samples. "MCPyV DNA was not detected for any of the 9 patients with
non-MCC neuroendocrine carcinomas," which were 5 small-cell lung
carcinomas, 3 well-differentiated intestinal carcinomas, and 1
high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix.
Array-CGH reveals recurrent genomic changes in Merkel cell
including amplification of L-Myc. KG Paulson, BD Lemos, B Feng, N
Jaimes, PF Peñas, X Bi, E Maher, L Cohen, JH Leonard, SR
Granter, L Chin, P Nghiem. J Invest Dermatol 2009
Jun;129(6):1547-1555. "Tumors from 13 of 22 MCC patients had detectable
Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA, and these tumors had fewer genomic
Clinical Factors Associated With Merkel Cell Polyomavirus
in Merkel Cell Carcinoma. H Sihto, H Kukko, V Koljonen, R Sankila, T
Böhling, H Joensuu. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009 Jul 1;101(13):938-45.
79.8 % of 114 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in Finland
were positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA."Compared with MCPyV
DNA-negative cancers, MCPyV DNA-positive cancers were more often
located in a limb (40.7% vs 8.7%, P = .015) and less frequent in
patients who had regional nodal metastases at diagnosis (6.6% vs 21.7%,
P = .043). Patients with MCPyV DNA-positive tumors had better overall
survival than those with MCPyV DNA-negative tumors (5-year survival:
45.0% vs 13.0%, respectively; P < .001, two-sided log-rank
Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences are frequently detected in
nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed patients. A Kassem, K
Technau, AK Kurz, D Pantulu, M Löning, G Kayser, E Stickeler, W
Weyers, C Diaz, M Werner, D Nashan, A Zur Hausen. Int J Cancer 2009 Jul
15;125(2):356-361. 56 nonmelanoma skin cancers (squamous cell
carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen's disease) from 11
immunosuppressed patients and 147 NMSCs of 125 immunocompetent
patients; normal skin and 89 colorectal cancers as comparison. "MCPyV
specific sequences were significantly more frequently found in NMSC of
immunosuppressed patients compared to immunocompetent patients (p
0.001). In particular BD and BCC revealed a significant increased
association of MCPyV of immunosuppressed patients (p = 0.002 and p =
0.006). Forty-seven of 147 (32%) sporadic NMSC were MCPyV positive. Interestingly,
37.5% (36/96) of sporadic BCC of immunocompetent patients were MCPyV
positive. No MCPyV was detected within normal skin and
out of 89 of additionally tested colorectal cancers were MCPyV
Clinical factors associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus
in Merkel cell carcinoma. H Sihto, H Kukko, V Koljonen, R Sankila, T
Böhling, H Joensuu. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009 Jul 1;101(13):938-945.
114 Merkel cell carcinoma tissue samples in Finland from 1979 to 2004.
MCPyV DNA was present in 91 carcinomas (79.8%), and positive tumors
were more often located in a limb.
Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in merkel cell carcinomas
its absence in combined tumors and pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas.
KJ Busam, AA Jungbluth, N Rekthman, D Coit, M Pulitzer, J Bini, R
Arora, NC Hanson, JA Tassello, D Frosina, P Moore, Y Chang. Am J Surg
Pathol 2009 Sep;33(9):1378-1385. 15 of 17 (88%) frozen Merkel cell
carcinoma samples were positive for MCV by PCR. "A tissue microarray of
36 MCCs, 7 combined squamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin,
and 26 pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas were also examined by IHC.
Of the 36 MCCs assembled on a microarray, 32 (89%) tumors expressed
CK20, and 27 (75%) were immunoreactive with CM2B4. The skin tumors with
a combined squamous and neuroendocrine phenotype and all pulmonary
neuroendocrine carcinomas failed to react with CM2B4."
Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection II. MCV is a common
infection that can be detected by conformational capsid epitope
immunoassays. YL Tolstov, DV Pastrana, H Feng, JC Becker, FJ Jenkins, S
Moschos, Y Chang, CB Buck, PS Moore. Int J Cancer 2009 Sep
15;125(6):1250-1256. "Among MCC patients, all 21 (100%) patients tested
with MCV-positive tumors had high serum MCV IgG but not high MCV IgM
levels. Only 3 of 6 (50%) MCC patients with MCV-negative tumors were
positive for MCV antibodies. Sera from most adults, including 107 of
166 (64%) blood donors, 63 of 100 (63%) commercial donors and 37 of 50
(74%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients, show evidence for prior
MCV exposure... Although past exposure to MCV is common among all
adult groups, MCC patients have a markedly elevated MCV IgG response
compared with control patients."
Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma
Kaposi's sarcoma. H Katano, H Ito, Y Suzuki, T Nakamura, Y Sato, T
Tsuji, K Matsuo, H Nakagawa, T Sata. J Med Virol 2009 Sep
22;81(11):1951-1958. MCPyV-DNA was detected in 6 of 11 (55%) cases of
Merkel cell carcinoma by nested PCR and real-time PCR. MCPyV-positive
cases had different histology from MCPyV-negative cases.
Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in Merkel cell
E Varga, M Kiss, K Szabó, L Kemény. Br J Dermatol 2009
Oct;161(4):930-2. "Nine primary or recurrent MCCs from
seven patients were examined; 29 other tumours (squamous cell, basal
cell and basosquamous carcinomas and malignant melanomas) were examined
for comparative purposes... The presence of viral T antigen and/or
viral capsid DNA sequences was demonstrated in seven of the eight MCC
lesions. None of the comparative samples contained MCV DNA."
Frequent occurrence of RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation and
cell polyomavirus in merkel cell carcinoma. P Helmbold, C Lahtz, A Enk,
P Herrmann-Trost, WC Marsch, H Kutzner, RH Dammann. Mol Carcinog 2009
Oct;48(10):903-9. "MCPyV was found in 90 of 98 (92%) MCC,
however, no SV40 signal was detected. No correlation between TSG
hypermethylation and viral infection was found."
Merkel cell polyomavirus in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
immunocompetent individuals. AM Dworkin, SY Tseng, DC Allain, OH
Iwenofu, SB Peters, AE Toland. J Invest Dermatol 2009
Dec;129(12):2868-74. "We detected MCPyV in 15% (26/177) of SCC DNA
and 17% (11/63) of adjacent skin DNA samples from 21 of 58 (36%)
individuals studied... All sequenced SCC samples had a common mutation
truncating the LT antigen that provides indirect evidence of viral
Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA detection in lesional and
skin from patients with Merkel cell carcinoma or other skin diseases. V
Foulongne, O Dereure, N Kluger, JP Molès, B Guillot, M Segondy.
Br J Dermatol 2010 Jan;162(1):59-63. "MCPyV DNA was detected in 14 of
18 (78%) patients with MCC, five of 18 (28%) patients with other skin
diseases (P = 0.007) and one of six (17%) clinically healthy subjects.
In patients with MCC, viral DNA was detected in nine of 11 (82%)
tumours and in 10 of 14 (71%) nontumoral skin samples (P = 0.66). MCPyV
DNA levels were higher in MCC tumours than in nontumoral skin from
patients with MCC, and than in lesional or nonlesional skin from
patients with other cutaneous disorders. Signature mutations in the T
antigen gene were not identified in the two MCC tumour specimens
Prevalence of MCPyV in Merkel cell carcinoma and non-MCC
Andres, B Belloni, U Puchta, CA Sander, MJ Flaig. J Cutan Pathol 2010
Jan;37(1):28-34. 33 MCC samples and 33 age- and
sex-matched samples of sun exposed non-MCC tumors (12 seborrheic
keratoses, 11 basal cell carcinomas, and 10 lentigo maligna melanomas).
"MCPyV sequences were detected in 21 MCC samples (64%) and in 2 non-MCC
tumors of sun exposed skin (6%; both SK-patients). Neither the tissue
samples from BCC nor LMM proved positive for MCPyV sequences."
Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus among Swiss Merkel cell
carcinoma patients. J Mangana, P Dziunycz, K Kerl, R Dummer, A Cozzio.
Dermatology 2010;221(2):184-188. "We detected viral DNA in 20 out of 30
cases of MCC and in 0 out of 19 control samples."
Merkel cell carcinoma subgroups by Merkel cell polyomavirus
relative abundance and oncogene expression. K Bhatia, JJ Goedert, R
Modali, L Preiss, LW Ayers. Int J Cancer 2010 May 1;126(9):2240-2246.
"MCPyV was detected in 19 of 23 (74%) primary MCC tumors, but 8 of
these had less than 1 viral copy per 300 cells. Viral abundance of
0.06-1.2 viral copies/cell was directly related to presence of
retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl
transferase (TdT) by immunohistochemical staining (p </= 0.003).
Higher viral abundance tumors tended to be associated with less p53
expression, younger age at diagnosis and longer survival (p </=
Distinct Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Molecular Features in Tumour
Non Tumour Specimens from Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma. HC
Laude, B Jonchère, E Maubec, A Carlotti, E Marinho, B Couturaud,
Peter, X Sastre-Garau, M-F Avril, N Dupin, F Rozenberg. PLoS Pathog
2010 Aug. 31 / 33 tumors were positive for markers of MPyV. "Patients
with MCC containing more than 1 viral genome copy per cell had a longer
period in complete remission than patients with less than 1 copy per
cell (34 vs 10 months, P = 0.037)" "However, in two models of
adenovirus and polyomavirus-induced oncogenesis, the dependence of
transformed cells on viral oncoproteins was reversed upon time, since
cells conserved an oncogenic phenotype while viral expression was
shut-down in one case and viral sequences were lost in the other. These
findings suggest that transformed cells acquire subsequent genetic
alterations which circumvent their need for a continued expression of
viral oncoproteins. Therefore, more cellular genetic
alterations may be necessary in virus-unrelated than in virus-related
Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma
Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients with Merkel cell
carcinoma. DM Reisinger, JD Shiffer, AB Cognetta Jr, Y Chang, PS Moore.
J Am Acad Dermatol 2010 Sep;63(3):400-403. "MCV T antigen was readily
detected in 15 (75%) of 20 MCC tumors including 11 MCC tumors from
patients with secondary SCC or BCC. In contrast to MCC, none of these
secondary BCC or SCC was MCV T-antigen positive.
Antibodies to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus T Antigen Oncoproteins
Reflect Tumor Burden in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Patients. KG Paulson, JJ
Carter LG Johnson, KW Cahill, JG Iyer, D Schrama, JC Becker, MM
Madeleine, P Nghiem, Galloway. Cancer Res 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8388-97.
"Among 530 population control subjects, these antibodies were
present in only 0.9% and were of low titer. In contrast, among 205 MCC
cases, 40.5% had serum IgG antibodies that recognize a portion of T-Ag
shared between small and large T-Ags. Among cases, titers of T-Ag
antibodies fell rapidly (∼8-fold per year) in patients whose cancer did
not recur, whereas they rose rapidly in those with progressive disease.
Importantly, in several patients who developed metastases, the rise in
T-Ag titer preceded clinical detection of disease spread."
The new polyomavirus (MCPyV) does not affect the clinical
MCCs. J Handschel, D Müller, RA Depprich, MA Ommerborn, NR
Kübler, C Naujoks, J Reifenberger, KL Schäfer, S Braunstein.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010 Nov;39(11):1086-1090. "59 samples from
44 patients were analysed for the presence of MCPyV using the primers
LT3, VP1 and LT1... 58% of specimens were positive for MCPyV. Of
these, LT3 was positive in 53%, VP1 in 37% and LT1 in 10%."
Merkel cell carcinoma: Our experience with seven patients in
and a literature review. KJ Woo, YL Choi, HS Jung, G Jung, YK Shin, KT
Jang, J Han, JK Pyon. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010
Dec;63(12):2064-70. All seven patients were positive for Merkel cell
Homo- and heterotypic cell-cell contacts in Merkel cells and
cell carcinomas: heterogeneity and indications for cadherin switching.
AM Werling, Y Doerflinger, JM Brandner, F Fuchs, JC Becker, D Schrama,
H Kurzen, S Goerdt, WK Peitsch. Histopathology 2011 Jan;58(2):286-303.
84% of 52 MCCs were positive for MCV DNA.
Presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Japanese cutaneous
cell carcinoma. M Murakami, M Imajoh, T Ikawa, H Nakajima, M Kamioka, Y
Nemoto, T Ujihara, J Uchiyama, S Matsuzaki, S Sano, M Daibata. J Clin
Virol 2011 Jan;50(1):37-41. 30 squamous cell carcinomas
and 10 basal cell carcinomas in Japanese. Viral sequences of the LT3
gene were found in 4 of 30 (13%) of SCCs. BCCs were all negative for
Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma of Italian
patients. F Paolini, P Donati, A Amantea, S Bucher, E Migliano, A
Venuti. Virol J 2011 Mar 7;8:103. "The presence of viral T antigen
and/or viral capsid DNA sequences was demonstrated in eight of the nine
MCC lesions, whereas RNA transcripts were detected in three MCCs."
Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection with
differences in Merkel cell carcinoma. S Kuwamoto, H Higaki, K Kanai, T
Iwasaki, H Sano, K Nagata, K Kato, M Kato, I Murakami, Y Horie, O
Yamamoto, K Hayashi. Hum Pathol 2011 May;42(5):632-640. "Merkel cell
polyomavirus was detected in 20 (77%) of 26 Merkel cell carcinoma
cases, including 4 Merkel cell carcinomas combined with squamous cell
carcinomas. Interestingly, Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected only
in ordinary (pure) Merkel cell carcinomas; none of the 4 combined
Merkel cell carcinomas + squamous cell carcinomas was positive for
Merkel cell polyomavirus (P = .001). Morphometric analyses revealed
that Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas had more
irregular nuclei (P < .001) and more abundant cytoplasm (P =
than Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive Merkel cell carcinomas, which
had uniform round nuclei and scant cytoplasm."
Human polyomaviruses and other human viruses in neuroendocrine
M Schmitt, D Höfler, N Koleganova, M Pawlita. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev 2011 Jul;20(7):1558-1561. 2 of 3 MCCs (67%) were
positive for MCV. Neuroendocrine tumors from other entities were
negative for all human polyomaviruses.
Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection with tumor
KIT, stem cell factor, PDGFR-alpha and survival in Merkel cell
carcinoma. M Waltari, H Sihto, H Kukko, V Koljonen, R Sankila, T
Böhling, H Joensuu. Int J Cancer 2011 Aug 1;129(3):619-628.
"Most (77.0%) of the 87 tumors contained MCPyV DNA and 37 (42.5%)
expressed KIT, whereas PDGFRα, p53, SCF and pKIT expression was less
common (31.9%, 22.8%, 8.6% and 4.8%, respectively)."
Merkel cell polyomavirus status is not associated with
course of merkel cell carcinoma. D Schrama, WK Peitsch, M Zapatka, H
Kneitz, R Houben, S Eib, S Haferkamp, PS Moore, M Shuda, JF Thompson, U
Trefzer, C Pföhler, RA Scolyer, JC Becker. J Invest Dermatol 2011
Aug;131(8):1631-1638. 86% of 174 MCC patients from Australia and
were positive for MCC, with no significant difference in prevalence
between the countries.
Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell
small cell carcinomas by PCR and immunohistochemistry. HS Jung, YL
Choi, JS Choi, JH Roh, JK Pyon, KJ Woo, EH Lee, KT Jang, J Han, CS
Park, YS Park, YK Shin. Histol Histopathol 2011 Oct;26(10):1231-1241.
14 MCCs, 24 SCCs, 7 Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors
(ES/PNETs) and 5 neuroblastomas; and a variety of other cancers. "In
total, 12 of 14 (85.7%) MCC cases were positive for MCPyV by PCR, which
was consistent with published data. Some SCC specimens were also
positive for MCPyV (37.5%) by PCR. PCR products from MCC and SCC cases
showed premature truncation and frameshift mutation. Furthermore, one
case of ES/PNET and one gastric carcinoma showed MCPyV DNA. However,
MCPyV DNA and transcript were only detected in MCCs with quantitative
real-time PCR analysis. In addition, 11 of 13 (84.6%) MCC cases and 6
of 23 (26.1%) SCC cases showed immunoreactivity with monoclonal
antibodies against MCPyV large T-antigen. Considering both PCR and IHC
results, MCPyV was detected in all MCCs tested. The presence of MCPyV
in all MCC cases tested and in some SCC cases suggests that MCPyV may
be involved in the malignant transformation."
Expression of p63 is the sole independent marker of
in localised (stage I-II) Merkel cell carcinomas. S Asioli, A Righi, D
de Biase, L Morandi, V Caliendo, F Picciotto, G Macripò, F
Maletta, LV di Cantogno, L Chiusa, V Eusebi, G Bussolati. Mod Pathol
2011 Nov;24(11):1451-1461. "Presence of Merkel cell
polyomavirus DNA sequences was detected in 86% (60/70) of Merkel cell
carcinomas and did not emerge as a significant prognostic parameter."
The spectrum of Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in Merkel
carcinoma, in a variety of cutaneous neoplasms, and in neuroendocrine
carcinomas from different anatomical sites. TY Ly, NM Walsh, S
Pasternak. Hum Pathol 2012 Apr;43(4):557-566. "Merkel cell
polyomavirus large T antigen was detected in 17 (63%) of 27 pure Merkel
cell carcinomas and absent in all 15 (0%) combined Merkel cell
carcinomas. Furthermore, complete concordance (100%) of Merkel cell
polyomavirus large T antigen expression was observed in 10 cases of
primary Merkel cell carcinoma and subsequent tumor metastases. We also
evaluated 70 non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions including 15 cases each
of pulmonary and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. All 70
non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions were negative for Merkel cell
polyomavirus by CM2B4 immunohistochemistry, irrespective of any known
Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosis and immune status."
P-cadherin expression in Merkel cell carcinomas is associated
prolonged recurrence-free survival. L Vlahova, Y Doerflinger, R Houben,
JC Becker, D Schrama, C Weiss, M Goebeler, P Helmbold, S Goerdt, WK
Peitsch. Br J Dermatol 2012 May;166(5):1043-1052. 148 samples from 106
patients. "MCV DNA was detected in 78·2% of all MCC, more
frequently in P-cadherin-positive MCC (P = 0·0008)."
Genetic variability and integration of Merkel cell
Merkel cell carcinoma. C Martel-Jantin, C Filippone, O Cassar, M Peter,
G Tomasic, P Vielh, J Brière, T Petrella, MH Aubriot-Lorton, L
Mortier, G Jouvion, X Sastre-Garau, C Robert, A Gessain. Virology 2012
May 10;426(2):134-142. 113 lesions from 97 patients. "MCPyV detection
was higher in fresh-frozen (FF) biopsies (94%) than in formalin-fixed
paraffin-embedded biopsies (39-47%). Mean viral load in FF tumor was of
7.5 copies per cell with a very wide range (0.01-95.4)." 19 / 27 had
Detection of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Human
Merkel Cell Carcinoma Combined With Squamous Cell Carcinoma in
Immunocompetent European Patients. C Mitteldorf, KD Mertz, MT
Fernández-Figueras, M Schmid, M Tronnier, W Kempf. Am J
Dermatopathol 2012 Jul;34(5):506-510. 2 combined tumors of
MCC and SCC were positive for MCPyV DNA, and HPV DNA was also detected
Extracutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas harbor polyomavirus DNA.
Biase, M Ragazzi, S Asioli, V Eusebi. Hum Pathol 2012
Jul;43(7):980-985. "Cases studied were 5 primary Merkel cell carcinomas
in lymph nodes, 1 in the parotid gland, and 12 in the skin. Twelve
cases of primary and metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung were
also investigated... Cytokeratin 20 and Merkel cell polyomavirus were
detected in all cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma irrespective of
their site of origin. On the contrary, all cases of pulmonary small
cell carcinoma were negative for both Merkel cell polyomavirus and
Improved detection suggests all Merkel cell carcinomas harbor Merkel polyomavirus. SJ Rodig, J Cheng, J Wardzala, A DoRosario, JJ Scanlon, AC Laga, A Martinez-Fernandez, JA Barletta, AM Bellizzi, S Sadasivam, DT Holloway, DJ Cooper, TS Kupper, LC Wang, JA DeCaprio. J Clin Invest 2012 Dec 3;122(12):4645-4653. "Here we report that a novel monoclonal antibody detected MCPyV large T antigen expression in 56 of 58 (97%) unique MCC tumors. PCR analysis specifically detected viral DNA in all 60 unique MCC tumors tested. We also detected inactivating point substitution mutations of TP53 in the two MCC specimens that lacked large T antigen expression and in only 1 of 56 tumors positive for large T antigen. These results indicate that MCPyV is present in MCC tumors more frequently than previously reported and that mutations in TP53 tend to occur in MCC tumors that fail to express MCPyV large T antigen."Rodig - J Clin Invest 2012 full article / PubMed Central
Merkel cell polyomavirus is frequently detected in korean patients with merkel cell carcinoma. SM Chun, SJ Yun, SC Lee, YH Won, JB Lee. Ann Dermatol 2013 May;25(2):203-207. "MCPyV sequences were detected in six of seven MCC tissue specimens (85.7%)." One small cell carcinoma of the lung and 32 tissue specimens of other skin tumors were negative.Chun - Ann Dermatol 2013 full article / PubMed Central
The prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Japanese patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. T Hattori, Y Takeuchi, T Takenouchi, A Hirofuji, T Tsuchida, T Kabumoto, H Fujiwara, M Ito, A Shimizu, E Okada, SI Motegi, A Tamura, O Ishikawa. J Dermatol Sci 2013 May;70(2):99-107. "Twenty-three out of 26 cases (88.5%) were positive for MCPyV DNA by PCR... The LT antigen was expressed in various degrees in 20 of 26 cases (76.9%) by immunohistochemistry."Hattori - J Dermatol Sci 2013 abstract / PubMed
Prevalence and viral DNA loads of three novel human polyomaviruses in skin cancers from Japanese patients. M Imajoh, Y Hashida, H Nakajima, S Sano, M Daibata. J Dermatol 2013 Aug;40(8):657-660. "MCPyV, HPyV6 and HPyV7 were detected in 22.2%, 3.2% and 1.6% of squamous cell carcinomas, 18.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% of basal cell carcinomas, and 19.1%, 4.3% and 4.3% of melanomas, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that their DNA loads were low."Imajoh - J Dermatol 2013 abstract / PubMed
Prospective study of merkel cell polyomavirus and risk of merkel cell carcinoma. H Faust, K Andersson, J Ekström, M Hortlund, TE Robsahm, J Dillner. Int J Cancer 2014 Feb;134(4):844-848. 22 cases from cancer registries of Sweden and Norway, and 88 controls. "An increased risk for future MCC was associated both with high levels of MCV antibodies (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.3-17.4) and with MCV neutralizing activity (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3-32.3). In males, MCV seropositivity was not associated to MCC risk, whereas the risk was strongly increased in females, both for high levels of MCV antibodies (OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.6-42.8) and for MCV neutralizing activity (OR 14.3, 95% CI 1.7-677)."Faust - Int J Cancer 2013 abstract / PubMed
T-cell responses to oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus proteins distinguish Merkel cell carcinoma patients from healthy donors. R Lyngaa, NW Pedersen, D Schrama, CA Thrue, D Ibrani, O Met, P Thor Straten, P Nghiem, JC Becker, SR Hadrup. Clin Cancer Res 2014 Apr 1;20(7):1768-1778. "In peripheral blood from 38 MCC patients and 30 healthy donors we identified 53 MCPyV-directed CD8 T-cell responses against 35 different peptide sequences. Strikingly, T-cell responses against oncoproteins were exclusively present in MCC patients, but not in healthy donors. We further demonstrate both the processing and presentation of the oncoprotein-derived epitopes, as well as the lytic activity of oncoprotein-specific T cells towards MHC-matched MCC cells. Demonstrating the presence of oncoprotein-specific T cells among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes further substantiated the relevance of the identified epitopes."Lyngaa - Clin Cancer Res 2014 abstract / PubMed
Merkel cell polyomavirus detection in Merkel cell cancer tumors in Northern Germany using PCR and protein expression. M Leitz, K Stieler, A Grundhoff, I Moll, JM Brandner, N Fischer. J Med Virol 2014 Oct;86(10):1813-1819. For MCPyV sequences and viral early gene expression in 32 cases, "40-57% of the cases were identified as MCPyV positive with 40.6% of the cases positive by immunohistochemical staining and 51.6-57.6% positive by PCR."Leitz - J Med Virol 2014 abstract / PubMed
Fluorescence in situ hybridization and qPCR to detect Merkel cell polyomavirus physical status and load in Merkel cell carcinomas. AM Haugg, D Rennspiess, AZ Hausen, EJ Speel, G Cathomas, JC Becker, D Schrama. Int J Cancer 2014 Dec 15;135(12):2804-2815. 62 samples from 42 patients. "MCPyV-FISH and qPCR data were highly correlated, i.e. 83% for FISH-positive and 93% for FISH-negative cores. Accordingly, the mean of the qPCR values of all MCPyV-positive cores differed significantly from the mean of the negative cores (p = 0.0076). Importantly, two hybridization patterns were definable in the MCPyV-FISH: a punctate pattern (85%) indicating viral integration, which correlated with a moderate viral abundance and a combination of the punctate with a diffuse pattern (15%), suggesting a possible coexistence of integrated and episomal virus which was associated with very high viral load and VP1 expression."Haugg - Int J Cancer 2014 abstract / PubMed
Frequent detection of human polyomavirus 6 in keratoacanthomas. J Beckervordersandforth, S Pujari, D Rennspiess, EJ Speel, V Winnepenninckx, C Diaz, W Weyers, AM Haugg, AK Kurz, A Zur Hausen. Diagn Pathol 2016 Jul 7;11(1):58. 299 non-melanoma skin cancer cases, including 59 keratoacanthomas, 25 of which (42.3%) were positive for MCPyV.Beckervordersandforth - Diagn Pathol 2016 full article / PubMed Central
Molecular prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer in a Brazilian population. TR Bellott, CF Baez, SG Almeida, MT Venceslau, MG Zalis, MA Guimarães, MC Rochael, FB Luz, RB Varella, JR Almeida. Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Jun;42(4):390-394. "MCPyV DNA was detected in 23 of 69 (33.3%) basal cell carcinomas, in 2 of 11 (18%) squamous cell carcinomas, 2 of 4 Bowen disease case, 0 of 1 MCC and 4 of 11 other skin disorders."Bellott - Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 abstract / PubMed
Detection and quantification of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Analysis of Merkel cell carcinoma cases from 1977 to 2015. M E Álvarez-Argüelles, S Melón, S Rojo, A Fernandez-Blázquez, J Antonio Boga, A Palacio, B Vivanco, M de Oña. J Med Virol 2017 Dec;89(12):2224-2229. MCPyV was detected in 31 (91.2%) of MCC patients.Álvarez-Argüelles - J Med Virol 2017 abstract / PubMed
The first observation of the association of Merkel cell polyomavirus and Merkel cell carcinoma in Brazil. CF Neto, WRP Oliveira, PVA Costa, MK Cardoso, PG Barreto, CM Romano, PR Urbano. Int J Dermatol 2019 Jun;58(6):703-706. "All MCC samples available (13) tested positive for the presence of MCPyV DNA" versus 4/20 non-MCC skin cancers.Neto - Int J Dermatol 2019 abstract / PubMed
Merkel cell polyomavirus is implicated in a subset of Merkel cell carcinomas, in the Indian subcontinent. R Arora, B Rekhi, P Chandrani, S Krishna, A Dutt. Microb Pathog 2019 Oct 7;137:103778. 38.8% (7/18) tumors were positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigen and 25% (3/12) were positive by both immunohistochemistry and PCR.Arora - Microb Pathog 2019 abstract / PubMed
A specific signature of Merkel cell polyomavirus persistence
human cancer cells. H zur Hausen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008 Oct
21;105(42):16063-16064. Mutations in the helicase part of the large T
antigen of MCpyV result in replication incompetence. These types of
mutation in other polyomaviruses have been shown to increase their
T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for
cell polyomavirus. M Shuda, H Feng, HJ Kwun, ST Rosen, O Gjoerup, PS
Moore, Y Chang. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008 Oct 21;105(42):16272-16277.
"Nine MCC tumor-derived LT genomic sequences have been examined, and
all were found to harbor mutations prematurely truncating the MCV LT
helicase. In contrast, four presumed episomal viruses from nontumor
sources did not possess this T antigen signature mutation." The
mutations "do not affect retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb)
binding by LT but do eliminate viral DNA replication capacity." "Only
WT LT expression activates replication of integrated MCV DNA in MKL-1
cells. Our findings suggest that MCV-positive MCC tumor cells undergo
selection for LT mutations to prevent autoactivation of integrated
virus replication that would be detrimental to cell survival. Because
these mutations render the virus replication-incompetent, MCV is not a
"passenger virus" that secondarily infects MCC tumors."
Merkel cell polyomavirus infected Merkel cell carcinoma cells
require expression of viral T antigens. R Houben, M Shuda, R Weinkam, D
Schrama, H Feng, Y Chang, PS Moore, JC Becker. J Virol 2010
Jul;84(14):7064-7072. "We knocked down MCV T antigen (TA) expression in
MCV-positive MCC cell lines using three different shRNA-expressing
vectors targeting exon 1 of the TAs... Notably, all MCV-positive MCC
cell lines underwent growth arrest and/or cell death upon TA knock
down, whereas proliferation of MCV-negative cell lines remained
unaffected... Our study provides the first direct experimental evidence
for TA expression being necessary for maintenance of MCV-positive MCC
and thereby identifies the TAs as possible targets for future
Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen mRNA level is
following in vivo UV-radiation. A Mogha, A Fautrel, N Mouchet, N Guo, S
Corre, H Adamski, E Watier, L Misery, MD Galibert. PLoS One 2010 Jul
2;5(7):e11423. "Two patients were infected with two new variants of
MCPyV, present in their episomal form and RT-QPCR analyses on
SSR-irradiated skin samples showed a specific and unique dose-dependent
increase of MCPyV small t antigen transcript. A luciferase based in
vitro assay confirmed that small t promoter is indeed UV-inducible."
Human Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen is an
targeting the 4E-BP1 translation regulator. M Shuda, HJ Kwun, H Feng, Y
Chang, PS Moore. J Clin Invest 2011 Sep;121(9):3623-3634. "Unlike the
closely related SV40 sT, MCV sT transformed rodent fibroblasts to
anchorage- and contact-independent growth and promoted serum-free
proliferation of human cells... MCV sT was found to act downstream in
the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway to preserve
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1)
hyperphosphorylation, resulting in dysregulated cap-dependent
translation. MCV sT-associated 4E-BP1 serine 65 hyperphosphorylation
was resistant to mTOR complex (mTORC1) and mTORC2 inhibitors.
Steady-state phosphorylation of other downstream Akt-mTOR targets,
including S6K and 4E-BP2, was also increased by MCV sT."
Merkel cell carcinoma and Merkel cell polyomavirus: evidence
hit-and-run oncogenesis. R Houben, J Grimm, C Willmes, R Weinkam, JC
Becker, D Schrama. J Invest Dermatol 2012 Jan;132(1):254-256. (Letter.)
A cell line from an MCV-positive tumor did not require T-antigen for
growth. "Thus, in some MCC cases, MCV may only be necessary for tumor
initiation, whereas additional mutations during tumor progression
render T-antigen expression dispensable for them. This might lead on
one hand to the loss of MCV within these tumors and on the other to a
different biological behavior including a more aggressive phenotype."
Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection with clinicopathological differences in Merkel cell carcinoma. H Higaki-Mori, S Kuwamoto, T Iwasaki, M Kato, I Murakami, K Nagata, H Sano, Y Horie, Y Yoshida, O Yamamoto, K Adachi, E Nanba, K Hayashi. Hum Pathol 2012 Dec;43(12):2282-2291. 20 Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and 6 Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma cases. TP53 expression was higher in positive cases. "Interestingly, frequency of TP53 non-ultraviolet signature mutation was significantly higher in Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas than in Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive Merkel cell carcinomas (P = .036), whereas no significant difference was detected in TP53 ultraviolet signature mutations between two groups."Higaki-Mori - Hum Pathol 2012 abstract / PubMed
C-terminal deletions of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T-antigen, a highly specific surrogate marker for virally induced malignancy. M Schmitt, U Wieland, A Kreuter, M Pawlita. Int J Cancer 2012 Dec 15;131(12):2863-2868. "MCPyV ΔC-TAg was used to assess the physical state of MCPyV TAg in a large series of 55 MCCs, 15 cutaneous lymphomas and 47 forehead smears of healthy individuals. Neither DNA positivity nor viral load was able to discriminate MCCs from the other different types of samples. However, deleted TAg C-terminus sequences were detected only in MCPyV positive MCCs (39%)."Schmitt - Int J Cancer 2012 abstract / PubMed
Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in both components of a combined Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation; each component had a similar but different novel Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen truncating mutation. T Iwasaki, H Kodama, M Matsushita, N Kuroda, Y Yamasaki, I Murakami, O Yamamoto, K Hayashi. Hum Pathol 2013 Mar;44(3):442-447. Case report of a combined tumor with Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation. "Both tumors and intermingled Merkel cells in basal cell carcinoma expressed Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen, and 17 and 240 copies of Merkel cell polyomavirus/cell were detected in the microdissected Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma specimens, respectively. Mutation analysis of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen revealed a novel truncating mutation in Merkel cell carcinoma and a similar but different mutation in the basal cell carcinoma."Iwasaki - Hum Pathol 2013 abstract / PubMed
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T Antigen Disrupts Host Genomic Integrity and Inhibits Cellular Proliferation. J Li, X Wang, J Diaz, SH Tsang, CB Buck, J You. J Virol 2013 Aug;87(16):9173-9188. "In this study, we show that MCV infection leads to activation of host DNA damage responses (DDR). This activity was mapped to the C-terminal helicase-containing region of MCV LT. The MCV LT-activated DNA damage kinases, in turn, led to enhanced p53 phosphorylation, up-regulation of p53 downstream target genes and cell cycle arrest. Compared to the N-terminal MCV LT fragment that is usually preserved in mutants isolated from MCC tumors, full-length MCV LT shows a decreased potential to support cellular proliferation, focus formation and anchorage-independent cell growth. These apparently anti-tumorigenic effects can be reversed by a dominant-negative p53 inhibitor... This study also explains, in part, why truncation mutations that remove the MCV LT C-terminal region are necessary for the oncogenic progression of MCV-associated cancers."Li - J Virol 2013 abstract / PubMed
Pure versus combined Merkel cell carcinomas: immunohistochemical evaluation of cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) reveals significant overexpression of p53 in combined tumors. JH Lai, KE Fleming, TY Ly, S Pasternak, M Godlewski, S Doucette, NM Walsh. Hum Pathol 2015 Sep;46(9):1290-1296. 51 MCV-positive and 24 MCV-negative. "Virus-positive tumors (all pure) exhibit high retinoblastoma protein and low p53 expression, whereas virus-negative cases (few pure and all combined) show high p53 and relatively high c-kit expression."Lai - Hum Pathol 2015 abstract / PubMed
The Distinctive Mutational Spectra of Polyomavirus-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma. PW Harms, P Vats, ME Verhaegen, DR Robinson, YM Wu, SM Dhanasekaran, N Palanisamy, J Siddiqui, X Cao, F Su, R Wang, H Xiao, LP Kunju, R Mehra, SA Tomlins, DR Fullen, CK Bichakjian, TM Johnson, AA Dlugosz, AM Chinnaiyan. Cancer Res 2015 Sep 15;75(18):3720-3727. "MCPyV-negative tumors also displayed high overall mutation burden (10.09 +/- 2.32 mutations per Mb) and were characterized by a prominent UV-signature pattern with C > T transitions comprising 85% of mutations. In contrast, mutation burden was low in MCPyV-positive tumors (0.40 +/- 0.09 mutations per Mb) and lacked a UV signature. These findings suggest a potential ontologic dichotomy in MCC, characterized by either viral-dependent or UV-dependent tumorigenic pathways."Harms - Cancer Res 2015 abstract / PubMed
Seroepidemiology of Human Polyomaviruses. JM Kean, S Rao, M
Garcea. PLoS Pathogens 2009 Mar;5(3). Seroprevalence in 1501 healthy
adult blood donors was SV40 (9%), BKV (82%), JCV (39%), LPV (15%), KIV
(55%), WUV (69%), MCV strain 350 (25%), and MCV strain 339 (42%).
Seroprevalence in 721 pediatric patients (<21 y) was similar.
Age-specific seroprevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus, BK
and JC virus. RP Viscidi, DE Rollison, VK Sondak, B Silver, JL Messina,
AR Giuliano, W Fulp, A Ajidahun, D Rivanera. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2011
Oct;18(10):1737-1743. 947 outpatients aged 1 to 93 years. "MCPyV
seroprevalence was 45% in children under 10 years of age, increased to
60% in the next decade of life, and peaked at 81% among those 60 to 69
years of age. Levels of MCPyV capsid antibodies were positively
correlated with age (P = 0.007)."
Molecular epidemiology of Merkel cell polyomavirus: evidence for geographically-related variant genotypes. C Martel-Jantin, C Filippone, P Tortevoye, PV Afonso, E Betsem, S Descorps-Declere, JT Nicol, A Touzé, P Coursaget, M Crouzat, N Berthet, O Cassar, A Gessain. J Clin Microbiol 2014 May;52(5):1687-1690. "DNAs from skin swabs of 255 adults, originating from the 5 continents, were subjected to MCPyV PCRs. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the existence of 5 major geographically-related MCPyV genotypes (Europe/North America, Africa (Sub-Saharan), Oceania, South America, Asia/Japan)."Martel-Jantin - J Clin Microbiol 2014 abstract / PubMed