The ICF Page

Background of ICF Consulting: "ICF Consulting was founded in 1969 as the Inner City Fund, a venture capital firm whose mission was to finance inner-city business. Its first president was C.L. Lester, a former Tuskegee Airman, who was joined in the enterprise by three U.S. Department of Defense analysts. The firm's consulting business proved more successful than its investments, and in 1972, it was reorganized as a consulting firm and renamed ICF Incorporated. Focusing on energy issues for U.S. federal agencies and for industry throughout the 1970s, the firm expanded its environmental business rapidly in the 1980s and began to build its engineering capabilities." In 1988 it acquired Kaiser Engineers, "which had originated as the engineering unit of Henry J. Kaiser's industrial empire and grew to rank among the largest engineering and construction companies in the world."

History / ICF Consulting
ICF Kaiser / NBC Group

Kaiser's empire was built up during the New Deal and World War II by superlobbyist Thomas G. Corcoran.

The Shadow Government

"When Robert Finch took office as Nixon's first HEW Secretary, he commissioned a study of the $278.5 million in contracts the Department awarded in fiscal 1968. The study disclosed that 88 percent of awards were negotiated and that, of this total, 82 percent were sole-sourced... The study found that 'procurement personnel are seldom involved in initial decisions that affect the procurement process. Program personnel establish requirements, select the contractor, conduct negotiations, and determine contract price, prior to submitting a request for contract to the procurement activity...'"

"The results of the August 1969 HEW study displeased Secretary Finch, who stated that the procedure of advertised competition should be followed unless it was 'absolutely necessary' not to.

"But one has only to examine the contracts awarded by Secretary Finch's office in the year following the completion of the study to discover the discrepancy between rhetoric and action. The Office of the Secretary produced a grab bag of sole-source awards that amply demonstrated the ease with which top agency officials trample on the procurement process.

"The 1971 Contract log for the Office of the Secretary records that a corporation called the Inner City Fund received no fewer than five sole-source awards from the Secretary's office. Inner City Fund was a newly created firm founded by a handful of young men who arrived in the inner city via elite business schools and the Defense Department's systems analysis shop. Founding member Pug Winokur explained that it was patterned after the typical influential Washington law fim. They were not interested in performing mundane studies but wanted to work directly on major policy issues. Within a short period of its founding, the firm was serving in this role at OEO, EPA, the National Security Council and HEW.

"ICF's first award of the fiscal year was OS-71-21. The Assistant Secretary for Population Affairs hired it to develop 'meaningful objectives for family planning.' ...Next came OS-71-87, a contract to study criteria for federal support of higher education at a rate to the ICF principals of $254 per day. The sole source justification described ICF as 'unique in the management of investigative teams simultaneously seeking program budget data and behavioral data concerning institutions of higher education necessary for interpreting program budget data in the field.' This seems to mean simply that ICF was familiar with the current jargon of analysis. But the justification boldly declared that even RAND, the fount of 'program budget' study, lacked 'the skills to proceed without time-consuming model construction' ...and 'personnel versed in the behavioral dimensions of institutional behavior.' The justification is a shocking reflection on HEW's contracting methods, since the 'exclusive' skills are scarcely distinguishable from those offered in consulting brochures and college catalogues.

"Did HEW really believe that this handful of young men possessed a monopoly of staple technical talent? 'There's not very many people around,' the young HEW contract officer for OS-71-87 explained, 'with the expertise that they have -- or at least the ins they have.' In any case, Martin Duby confided, 'there's no way you're going to open it up to competition anyway.'

"Contract OS-71-110 turned ICF to national health policy. The firm, the sole-source justification noted, had been 'active in preparing the HMO [Health Maintenance Organizations] Act and Family Health Insurance HMO option [sic], recently submitted by the Administration to Congress.' OS-71-110 provided ICF money for further HMO work. (The only novelty in the file was a program manager's plea that ICF receive at least GS-16 salary for its work.) (Excerpt from The Shadow Govenrment. The Government's Multi-billion-dollar Giveaway of its Decision-making Powers to Private Management Consultants, "Experts," & Think Tanks. By Daniel Guttman and Barry Willner. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.)

The Inner City Fund was also involved in the "Title I Task Force," on the misuse of the government's education funds. "The Task Force was headed by Tim Wirth, then an HEW official, now [1976] a congressman from Colorado... The Inner City Fund summarized the Task Force's work." (Ibid, p. 174.)

Herbert S. Winokur Jr.

ICF founder Herbert S. Winokur Jr. was assigned to the Office of the Secretary of Defense from 1967-69, and served as chairman of ICF from 1969-74. "Winokur has maintained close ties to Harvard over the years. A member of the Committee on University Resources since 1989, he has also served since 1995 as a member of the board of directors of the Harvard Management Company." He is on the advisory committee of Harvard's Mind/Brain/Behavior Initiative and other committees.

Winokur / Harvard Gazette 2000

The Harvard Management Company - HUD scandal. "Bushwhacked: HUD fraud, spooks and the slumlords of Harvard," by Uri Dowbenko, Conspiracy Digest.

Dowbenko / Conspiracy Digest
Pug Winokur Data Dump / Newsmaking
The Harvard Corporation /

Winokur was a director of the infamous Enron Corporation, along with Charles A. LeMaistre, longtime coordinator of the joint anti-smoking activities of the American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, and American Lung Association, and John Mendelsohn, LeMaistre's successor as the president of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

"Follow the Yellow Brick Road: From Harvard to Enron"

"Follow the Yellow Brick Road" / Newsmaking News

James O. Edwards

"James O. Edwards, 50, has been Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of ICF Kaiser International, Inc. since its establishment in 1987. He also was president of ICF International from 1987 to 1990. In 1974, he joined ICF Incorporated, the predecessor of ICF Kaiser International, and was its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer from 1986 until the 1987 establishment of ICF Kaiser. Mr. Edwards graduated from Northwestern University (B.S.I.E.) and Harvard University (M.B.A., High Distinction, George F. Baker Scholar)."

Carol J. Henry

Carol J. Henry, Chief of Toxicology at ICF circa 1985-86, was formerly the director of inhalation toxicology at Microbiological Associates (aka the Mouse House, now BioReliance). She was a research assistant at the Sloan-Kettering Institute from 1975 until joining MA in August 1976. She and Richard E. Kouri were project directors of "Smoke Inhalation Studies in Mice," funded by the Council for Tobacco Research. In 1985, she left MA and was replaced as project director by Raymond M. David. In 1993, after Microbiological Associates was acquired by Sidney R. Knafel, the mouse study was used to concoct a cock-and-bull story accusing the CTR of suppressing research.

Carol Janice Morgan Henry / Carol Morgan Sprecher CV, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 12 pp)

The official fairy tale concerning Microbiological Associates: "The Council for Tobacco Research contracted with Microbiological Associates to do the world's largest inhalation study, involving more than 10,000 mice in 1973-1982... Per Dr. Carol Henry, Microbiological Associates' director of inhalation toxicology, the lab initially had considerable freedom, but after nine years of work and $12 million, the team was told in 1982 that it could no longer meet with CTR staffers unless a lawyer was present. Dr. Henry told them it was unacceptable, and a CTR lawyer told them that is the way it is. The lab knuckled under. If the contract was canceled before the first experiment was completed, 40 staffers might lose their jobs and nine years' worth of data would never come to light (WSJ 2/11/93)." (How Tobacco Firms Keep Health Questions "Open" Year After Year. By Alix M. Freedman and Laurie P. Cohen. McClatchey Newspapers Inc., Sacramento Bee, Feb. 28, 1993.) The deceit here is in pretending that this study had any scientific value in smoking and health. It was a pure ripoff, which the Lasker Syndicate's stooges in the media spin-doctored into a supposed outrage. Also, if the CTR had wished to suppress research, it would have been much simpler not to have given them $12 million in the first place.

McClatchey Newspapers, 1993 / UCSF (pdf, 9 pp)

Biological activity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke-related chemicals. Richard E. Kouri, Thomas H. Rude, Rodger D. Curren, Karen R. Brandt, Ronald G. Sosnowski, Leonard M. Schechtman, William F. Benedict, and Carol J. Henry. Environmental Health Perspectives 1979 Apr;29:63-69. Essentially anti-tobacco propaganda funded by the CTR.

Kouri - Environ Health Perspect 1979 full article / UCSF (pdf, 7 pp)

Correlation of inducibility of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase with susceptibility to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced lung cancers. RE Kouri, LH Billups, TH Rude, CE Whitmire, B Sass, CJ Henry. Cancer Letter 1980 Jun;9(4):277-284. Although it had nothing to do with cancer viruses, this was funded by the Special Virus Cancer Program of the National Cancer Institute, with which CTR SAB member Robert J. Huebner was affiliated, as well as by the CTR. Huebner, who according to trial testimony steered funding for mouse inhalation studies to Microbiological Associates, left the CTR in 1981.

Kouri - Cancer Lett 1980 full article / UCSF (pdf, 8 pp)

"[A] synopsis of MA's 'Mini-NCl' contract efforts" between 1970 and 1981, including 10 contracts and 1 grant, totalling approximately $6 million; with extensive contacts with other research organizations. (Carol J. Henry and Richard E. Kouri to Sheldon C. Sommers of the CTR SAB, Jan. 27, 1982.)

Henry & Kouri to Sommers, Jan. 27, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 5 pp)

Meeting at The Council for Tobacco Research, Apr. 20, 1982, at which "Experimental work was terminated by mutual agreement effective June 1981; final report and data transfer were scheduled for December 1981." Henry, Kouri, and SAB members Bing, Lynch, Bowden, Jacobson, Feldman and Gardner were present, along with CTR staff.

Meeting at The Council for Tobacco Research, Apr. 20, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 3 pp)

Toxicity of Reference Cigarette Smoke After Inhalation in Mice Following a 14-Day Smoke Adaptation Period. Final Report for Lorillard Company, By Microbiological Associates, July 6, 1982. During 1982-85, toxicologist Connie J. Stone of Lorillard pointed out numerous corrections in reports relating to MA mouse inhalation studies. (Connie J. Stone of Lorillard to Henry, Aug. 24, 1982; Stone to Henry, Dec. 1, 1982; Stone to Henry, Jan. 27, 1983; Stone to Henry, Mar. 31, 1983; Stone to Henry, Apr. 20, 1983; Stone to Henry, July 12, 1983; Stone to Henry, Aug. 9, 1983; Stone to Henry, Aug. 17, 1983; Stone to Henry, Oct. 6, 1983; Stone to Henry, May 16, 1984; Stone to Henry, Jan. 14, 1985; Stone to Henry, Apr. 15, 1985; Stone to Henry, Apr. 19, 1985 (instructs that the phrase "smoke-related lesions were observed" should be used in place of "test article related;" Stone to Henry, May 17, 1985.)

Toxicity of Reference Cigarette Smoke, July 6, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 46 pp)
Stone to Henry, Aug. 24, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Stone to Henry, Dec. 1, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Stone to Henry, Jan. 27, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 3 pp)
Stone to Henry, Mar. 31, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Stone to Henry, Apr. 20, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Stone to Henry, July 12, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Stone to Henry, Aug. 9, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Stone to Henry, Aug. 17, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Stone to Henry, Oct. 6, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 3 pp)
Stone to Henry, Oct. 6, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 3pp)
Stone to Henry, May 16, 1984 / UCSF (pdf, 3 pp)
Stone to Henry, Jan. 14, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 3 pp)
Stone to Henry, Jan. 14, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 3pp)
Stone to Henry, Apr. 15, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 5 pp)
Stone to Henry, Apr. 19, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Stone to Henry, May 17, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

John C. Parker, Ph.D., President of Microbiological Associates, proposed to submit the manuscripts of the mouse inhalation study in four parts, "the first of which you received on December 1, 1983," the second and third to be completed by Feb. 28, 1984, cost $29,754. (Parker to Tom Hoyt of the CTR, Dec. 6, 1983.)

Parker to Hoyt, Dec. 6, 1983 / UCSF (pdf, 7 pp)

Henry and Kouri sought a contract with R.J. Reynolds Tobacco "to prepare for publication results of the research entitled "Smoke Inhalation Studies in Mice." (Henry to Dr. A. Wallace Hayes of RJR, June 7, 1985.)

Henry to Hayes, June 7, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 3 pp)

Henry requested a Special Project grant of $38,000 from the CTR to complete two manuscripts on the mouse inhalation studies, and submit the first for publication on or about Aug. 15, 1985. (Henry to Sheldon C. Sommers, July 31, 1985.)

Henry to Sommers, July 31, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)

Robert F. Gertenbach, President of the CTR, instructed Henry to ship leftover study materials to Dr. D. Layten Davis at the University of Kentucky. (Gertenbach to Henry, May 8, 1985). He offered Henry and Kouri $38,000 to complete and submit the first manuscript on the mouse inhalation studies on or before Aug. 15, 1985, and a second manuscript later, with the stipulation that its support by the CTR be acknowledged, and the disclaimer that "The interpretations and opinions are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Council for Tobacco Research-U.S.A., Inc." (Gertenbach to Henry, Aug. 12, 1985; Henry to Gertenbach, Invoice for services rendered, Sep. 18, 1985; Henry to Gertenbach, Invoice for services rendered, Feb. 18, 1986; Henry to Gertenbach, Invoice for services rendered, June 10, 1986.)

Gertenbach to Henry, May 8, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Gertenbach to Henry, Aug. 12, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Henry to Gertenbach, Sep. 18, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Henry to Gertenbach, Feb. 18, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Henry to Gertenbach, June 10, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)

August 16, 1985 letter from Carol J. Henry (co-signed by Kouri) to Elizabeth K. Weisburger, Assistant Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, submitting the second manuscript for publication, and disclosing that the mouse study had been published verbatim in book form by the CTR.

Henry to Weisburger, Aug. 19, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

"However, Garfinkle of the American Cancer Society said rodents are not useful for lung cancer studies because their noses and throats filter out almost all the smoke. 'That's been tried many, many times,' he said. There's no point to it. Most people who work with tobacco assays use the skin (of animals) as a measure of how potent carcinogens are. The whole point about doing it by inhalation is nonsense. If anybody had deigned to read the literature, they wouldn't have started a study like that." (Cancer fighter also aids tobacco-funded unit. By Dolly Katz, Free Press Medical Writer. The Detroit Free Press, Nov. 4, 1985 pp. 3A, 15A.)

Cancer fighter also aids tobacco-funded unit, Nov. 4, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

While at ICF, Henry wrote to A. Wallace Hayes of R.J. Reynolds, enclosing five copies of the manuscript of "Chronic Inhalation Studies in Mice II," and telling him: "We are looking forward to your review of this manuscript, with the view to submit it for publication as soon as possible." (Henry to Hayes, Aug. 8, 1985.)

Henry to Hayes, Aug. 8, 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)

While at ICF, Henry wrote to Sheldon C. Sommers, "Enclosed is a copy of the acceptance letter of the revised final draft of the manuscript entitled "Chronic Inhalation Studies in Mice II. The Effects of Long-Term Exposure of 2RI Cigarette Smoke to BC3FI/Cum Mice". Also included is a copy of the manuscript and a letter to Harry Vaino at The International Agency for Research in Cancer regarding whether the studies will be included in the Tobacco Smoking monograph. As I am sure you are, Dick and I are very pleased that the work will finally appear in a peer-reviewed journal. We appreciate your encouragement and support. I am proceeding vigorously (!) on the next manuscript and will discuss it's progress with you by telephone. Sincerely, Carol J. Henry, Ph.D., D.A.B.T." (Feb. 28, 1986); and summarizing speakers' major points at the public meeting for the Committee on Passive Smoking of the National Academy of Sciences on Jan. 29, 1986, and enclosing various handouts and materials. (Henry to Sommers, Feb. 6, 1986.)

Henry to Sommers, Feb. 28, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Henry to Sommers, Feb. 6, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 14 pp)

While at ICF, she also did on-site consulting for Lorillard Tobacco, including a written critique of the inhalation program at Microbiological Associates Inc., and review of internal summary documents. (Henry's contract with Lorillard, Jan. 24, 1986, signed by Fred Schultz, Vice President of R&D, on Feb. 4, 1986; H.J. Minnemeyer to R.S. Goldbrenner of Lorillard, forwarding the Henry contract, Feb. 6, 1986; Henry to Dr. Harry Minnemeyer, Invoice No. 1296-86, Feb. 18, 1986; Invoice No. 0-392-7, June 10, 1986; Invoice No. 0-903-7, Oct. 8, 1986.) In 1987, Henry was a vice president of ICF, and raised her billing rate to $150 an hour. She wrote to Minnemeyer confirming her plans to review Lorillard's inhalation program with Dan [Heck] and Tom [Vollmuth]. (Henry to Minnemeyer, July 2, 1987; Henry to Heck and Vollmuth of Lorillard Research Center, July 2, 1987.)

Henry's contract with Lorillard, Feb. 4, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 5 pp)
Minnemeyer to Goldbrenner, Feb. 6, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Henry to Minnemeyer, Feb. 18, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 8 pp)
Invoice No. 0-392-7, June 10, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Invoice No. 0-903-7, Oct. 8, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 7 pp)
Henry to Minnemeyer, July 2, 1987 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Henry to Heck and Vollmuth, July 2, 1987 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)

Chronic inhalation studies in mice. II. Effects of long-term exposure to 2R1 cigarette smoke on (C57BL/Cum x C3H/AnfCum)F1 mice. CJ Henry, RE Kouri. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986 Jul;77(1):203-212. "The only lung cancers observed were diagnosed as alveolar adenocarcinomas (AAC). A total of 19 of 978 smoke-exposed mice and 7 of 651 sham-exposed mice were observed with AAC. The difference between the smoke-and sham-exposed groups was not statistically significant at P less than or equal to .05, but the data suggested that the tumors occurred with a shorter latency in the smoke-exposed group (P = .10). The data were analyzed by various methods, including analysis of subsets of the population of animals. A significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer was observed in one subset; however, this difference was not found in the population as a whole or as a result of any other analyses. Under these exposure conditions, 2R1 cigarette smoke would seem to have weak carcinogenic activity in mouse lung tissue. Other changes associated with smoke exposure were increased incidence of pigmented alveolar macrophage accumulation, otitis media, and head and neck fibrosarcomas. However, the incidence of nephritis, hematopoietic cancers (e.g., leukemias, lymphosarcomas, and reticulum cell sarcomas), and pulmonary congestion was significantly higher in the sham-exposed animals."

Henry & Kouri - JNCI 1986 full article / UCSF (pdf, 6 pp)

Memorandum from Ms. Gretchen Bretsch, ILSI-Nutrition Foundation, and Dr. Carol J. Henry, ILSI Risk Science Institute; Subject: Proposition 65 Update, Oct. 3, 1988. The distribution list included representatives of Coca-Cola, General Foods, Borden, Gerber, Campbell Soup, Frito-Lay, American Home Products, Kellogg, Procter & Gamble, PepsiCo, Wyeth-Ayerst, Hershey Foods, Kraft, Nabisco Brands, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, and Best Foods.

Proposition 65 Update, Oct. 3, 1988 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)

Criteria for identifying and listing substances known to cause reproductive toxicity under California's Proposition 65. DR Mattison, PK Working, WF Blazak, CL Hughes, JM Killinger, DL Olive, KS Rao. In Press: Reproductive Toxicology (Aug. 30, 1989). "The authors are members of The Expert Committee on Criteria for Listing Reproductive Toxicants convened by the International Life Sciences Institute-Nutrition Foundation. The Expert Committee wishes to extend its appreciation to the ILSI-NF Proposition 65 Task Force, Dr. Catherine St. Hilaire, ENVIRON Corporation and the ILSI Risk Science Institute staff for their assistance in the preparation of this document, in particular, Dr. Carol J. Henry, Dr. R.J. Dutton, Ms. Gretchen Bretsch, Ms. Stephanie D. Carter, and Ms. Elizabeth Jean-Paul. Correspondence and reprint requests should be directed to Dr. Mattison, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences." And: Criteria for identifying and listing substances known to cause developmental toxicity under California's Proposition 65. DR Mattison, JW Hanson, DM Kochhar, KS Rao. Reprod Toxicol 1989;3(1):3-12.

Mattison et al. - Reproductive Toxicology (in press, 1989) / UCSF (pdf, 40 pp)
Mattison et al. - Reprod Toxicol 1989 / UCSF (pdf, 10 pp)

At the California OEHHA, Henry was Director of Proposition 65 Implementation. On behalf of the Tobacco Instutute, Donald F. Miles of Howard Rice Nemerovski Canady Robertson & Falk submitted a protest of proposed changes in the approved warning for ETS which would include the claim that "Certain components of tobacco smoke are known to cause birth defects or other reproductive harm." (Miles to Henry, Draft Revised Proposition 65 Warning Regulations, Mar. 4, 1993.) List of chemicals "known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity" under the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, also known as Proposition 65 (California Health and Safety Code Section 25249.5, er seq.) of the California Environmental Protection Agency, Oct. 1, 1993, from Carol J. Henry.

Miles to Henry, Mar. 4, 1993 / UCSF (pdf, 5 pp)
California Environmental Protection Agency, Oct. 1, 1993 / UCSF (pdf, 9 pp)

"Carol J. Henry is the Science and Policy Director of the Office of Integrated Risk Management at the Department of Energy (DOE). She is responsible for the development of major policies, systems and guidelines for DOE's Environmental Management risk management programs and activities and she reports directly to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management. From 1992-94 Dr. Henry was the Director of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. She was previously the Executive Director of the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute in Washington, DC. Dr. Henry holds a PhD in Microbiology from the University of Pittsburgh and has done post doctoral work at the Max Planck Institute in Tubingen, at Princeton University and at the Sloan Kettering Institute." (Appendix D: Biographical Information on Workshop Speakers and Participants. Improving the Environment: An Evaluation of the DOE's Environmental Management Program. National Academies Press, 1995.) Gilbert S. Omenn has been on the board of directors of ILSI since 1989.

Appendix D: Biographical Information, 1995 / National Academies Press

Debevoise & Plimpton, attorneys for the CTR, signed up Kouri as a consultant at $1000 a day, after telling him that they had no intention to subpoena him. (Alan H. Scheiner of Debevoise & Plimpton to Kouri, Feb. 21, 1997; subpoena of Debevoise & Plimpton, July 21, 1997.)

Scheiner to Kouri, Feb. 21, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Debevoise & Plimpton subpoena, July 21, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)

Affidavit of Richard E. Kouri, June 6, 1997, claiming that William U. Gardner and attorney Tim Finnegan ordered him to "include no opinion and little interpretation," without his opinion that cigarette smoke was a weak carcinogen in mice; subpoena of Thomas E. Mellon Jr., attorney for plaintiffs, Arch v. American Tobacco, July 15, 1997.

Kouri Affidavit, June 6, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 5 pp)
Mellon subpoena, July 15, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)

Kouri got his Ph.D in radiation biology from the University of Tennessee working at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with a postdoctoral fellowship at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology in Nutley, NJ. After leaving Microbiological Associates in 1983, Kouri became Director of Research at International Biotechnologies, Inc., of New Haven, CT. In 1986-89, he was founder, director, and director of research at GenMap Inc., New Haven, CT, with $3M in venture capital from Oxford Bioscience, MVP and Ventures West. In 1986-94, he was founder, director, CEO and President, and chairman until 1997, of BIOS Laboratories, with "over 7M in placement capital led by ICF Inc., Vienna, VA, Conn. Innovations Inc. and the City of New Haven." In 1994-97, he was founder, director, CEO, chief technical officer and senior vice president of Gene Logic Inc. in Columbia, MD, with venture financing from Oxford Biosciences and Hambro America.. As of May 1997, Kouri was the President and CEO of VIMRx Genomics Inc., and Senior Vice President of VIMRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Subpoena of Texas Attorney General Dan Morales, Apr. 23, 1997; CV, Deposition of Richard E. Kouri, Sep. 12, 1997.)

Morales subpoena, Apr. 23, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 11 pp)
Kouri CV, Sep. 12, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 17 pp)
Kouri Deposition, Sep. 12, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 267 pp)

Ron Motley deposed Henry jointly for the lawsuits of the State of Florida and the State of Texas: Q: And a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Pittsburgh in 1972? A: Yes. Q: What is microbiology? A: It's the study of microscopic organizations. MR. MOTLEY: Can we stop for one second? (Discussion off the record) BY MR. MOTLEY Q: It's the study of what, now? A: Microscopic organisms. Q: For example? A: Germs, little bugs that live inside us to help us live. They're ubiquitous throughout our world, and we need them to live." She was involved in research on benzo(a)pyrene at Sloan-Kettering Institute [the field of Dietrich Hoffmann and Ernst Wynder]. Bruce G. Merritt of Debevoise & Plimpton for the CTR cross-examined her about her later work for Lorillard, correspondence with Sommers, and proposal to work for RJR, the last of which she denied (pp 80-81). Merritt questioned her about Kouri and Kreisher becoming business partners after Kouri left MA (page 83). (Deposition of Carol J. Henry, July 31, 1997.)

Deposition of Carol J. Henry, July 31, 1997 / UCSF (pdf, 135 pp)

Henry testified in the trial of Craig Dunn and Philip Wiley, et al. versus RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporations, et al., 18D01-9305-CT-06, an individual personal injury suit alleging that second-hand tobacco smoke caused the death from cancer of Mildred P. Wiley, a non-smoking Indiana nurse. The jury decided against the plaintiffs. Henry was associate deputy assistant secretary for Science and Technology in the Office of Environmental Management in the Department of Energy until May 1998, then Director of Health Environmental Sciences for the American Petroleum Institute. In the MA study, their original contact, Dr.John H. Kreisher, was abruptly terminated and replaced by Dr. William U. Gardner [a high official of the American Cancer Society who destroyed research, which is not disclosed in the testimony.] Henry's employment at ICF is also not mentioned.

Carol J. Henry testimony, March 2, 1998 / UCSF (pdf, 168 pp)

John H. Kreisher, who had been Assistant Director and Research Associate of the New England Institute for Medical Research, joined the Council for Tobacco Research as Associate Scientific Director in 1967, under Robert C. Hockett. The NEIMR was a shadowy outfit, whose illustrious trustees included Lieut. Gen. Leslie R. Groves (ret), an anti-smoker, with Prescott S. Bush, Skull & Bones 1917, and former Vice President Richard M. Nixon on its Advisory Council. The Environmental Protection Agency was created during the Nixon administration, while Prescott Bush's brother-in-law, Dr. John Mercer Walker (S&B 1931, had been an overseer at Memorial while Henry was at Sloan-Kettering in 1975.

Henry was a member of the National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee of Dec. 3, 1998, which was stacked in order to proclaim secondhand smoke a human carcinogen in the Ninth Report on Carcinogens (Tobacco Related Exposures, 2000). In this report, there is no mention at all of the known human carcinogens, human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus, which are frequently found in lung carcinomas, and which the IARC had designated as a human carcinogen in 1997. The NTP didn't even get around to classifying HPV as a human carcinogen until 2004, nine years after the IARC did so. They have evidently still not gotten around to classifying EBV as another, although it is also nine years since the IARC did that.

NTP Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee, Dec. 3, 1998 / UCSF (pdf, 8 pp)
Tobacco Related Exposures, 2000 / (pdf, 6pp)

"As Acting Vice President for Industry Performance Programs, Dr. Henry directs and manages the American Chemistry Council’s $20 million-per-year, Long-Range Research Initiative." (Carol J. Henry, Ph.D. American Chemistry Council.) The industry contributed $1 million and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences $3 million "for understanding the possible effects of environmental factors and chemicals on human reproduction and fetal and childhood development." (Council and NIEHS Agree to $4 Million Research Effort to Improve Testing Chemicals for Potential Human Developmental and Reproductive Effects. NIEHS Press Release, July 26, 2001.)

Carol J. Henry, Ph.D. / American Chemistry Council
Press Release, July 26, 2001 / NIEHS

"Carol J. Henry, Ph.D., D.A.B.T., serves as Acting Vice President for Industry Performance Programs, American Chemistry Council. Prior to her current position, she was Vice President for Science and Research at the American Chemistry Council, and is leader of the Long-Range Research Initiative Team. Prior to joining the American Chemistry Council in May 1999, Dr. Henry served as director of the Health and Environmental Sciences Department of the American Petroleum Institute (API) and as API's chief scientist. Before joining API in 1997, Dr. Henry completed five years of public service, serving as associate deputy assistant secretary for Science and Risk Policy at the U. S. Department of Energy, and as director of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment at the California Environmental Protection Agency. Prior to that appointment, she was executive director of the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute. She holds a Ph.D. in Microbiology at the University of Pittsburgh, and is a Diplomate at the American Board of Toxicology. Dr. Henry is a member of the NRC's Committee on the Review of EPA's Research Grants Program, the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, the Science Advisory Board, Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the NRC Chemical Sciences Roundtable, and the IOM Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research and Medicine." Her sojourn at ICF is not mentioned. (Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine Roundtable Members and Staff, Institute of Medicine. Last Updated: 2/27/2006.) The Lasker Lobby's longtime Congressional henchman, former Rep. Paul G. Rogers, is the apparent chairman of this Roundtable.

Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine Roundtable Members and Staff / Institute of Medicine

The authors of key chapters of the EPA's final report on Environmental Tobacco Smoke were hand-picked anti-smoking activists, funded via illegal pass-through contracts that were channeled by ICF beginning around August 1988.

The EPA's ETS Lies

Some directors of ICF who were with the company during this period:

Marc Tipermas

"He has held senior management positions in several of ICF Kaiser's operating subsidiaries since joining the company in 1981. From 1977 to 1981 Dr. Tipermas was employed by the U.S. Environmental Proteection Agency where he was director of the Superfund Policy and Program Management Office from 1980 to 1981. Prior to joining EPA, he was Assistant Professor of Political Science at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 1975 to 1977. Dr. Tipermas has been a director of ICF International, Inc. since October 1993."

Frederic V. Malek

Malek has been a business crony of anti-smoker Sen. Frank Lautenberg since 1978. He led the takeover of Northwest Airlines shortly after it banned smoking (probably with financial inducement from Malek). He was on the board of directors of EPA contractor ICF when the key chapters of its ETS report were written via illegal pass-through contracts. And, he got support for the domestic airline smoking ban as a favor from President Bush in return for putting George W. on the board of directors of a comapny controlled by The Carlyle Group.

The other directors of ICF in 1994 are: Gian Andrea Botta, president of the Italian EXOR Group, who joined in 1993; former California Rep. Tony Coelho, who joined in 1990; Tom Bradley, the former mayor of Los Angeles, who joined in 1993; Rebecca Mark, Chairman, President and CEO of Enron Development Corporation, who joined in 1993; and Robert W. Page, retired Executive Vice President of McDermott International, who joined in 1993.

ICF International 1994 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission

A followup of ICF: "Possible fraud by ICF Inc. involving NRC contracts." ICF Kaiser Group International of Fairfax, VA overbilled the government on its computer center contracts from 1986 to 1996. They simultaneously entered a settlement agreement and filed for bankruptcy. And, they're back in business again as ICF Kaiser International, Inc. / KS Crump Group. In 1999, 90% of its consulting group was sold to a privately held investment fund for about $70 million.

ICF Kaiser /

ICF Kaiser International contributed to Sen. Thomas Bliley's campaign in 1998 (also Blue Cross Blue Shield and the Association of Trial Lawyers of America).

Bliley / Center for Responsive Politics

cast 12-27-17