HPV in Men

"The sexual behavior of men... can influence the risk of cervical cancer"

Detection of human papillomavirus infections in the male sexual partners of women attending an STD clinic in Bologna. S Costa, S Syrjanen, C Vendra, F Chang, G Guida, A Tervahauta, M Hippelainen, K Syrjanen. Int J STD AIDS 1992 Sep-Oct;3(5):338-346. "HPV was never present in men with only a single sexual partner, but increased significantly when the number of partners was increased, being highest (27.3%, 3 of 11) in those reporting 11-20 partners.

Costa - Int J STD AIDS 1992 full article / UCSF (pdf, 11 pp)

Papillomavirus research update: Highlights of the Barcelona HPV 2000 international papillomavirus conference. FX Bosch, T Rohan, A Schneider, I Frazer, H Pfister, X Castellsague, S de Sanjose, V Moreno, LM Puig-Tintore, PG Smith, N Munoz, H zur Hausen. J Clin Pathol 2001;54(3):163-175. "One phenomenon of interest in relation to risk of cervical cancer is the so-called male factor. Essentially, this is taken to mean that the sexual behavior of men (for example, the number of sexual partners that they have had) can influence the risk of cervical cancer in their female sexual partners. In this regard, Bleeker et al. presented data showing that 80% of the male sexual partners of women with CIN had penile lesions, of which a substantial portion were infected with HPV, and they speculated that penile lesions in sexual partners of women with CIN are probably productive and that they might play an important role in influencing the course of cervical lesions in these women by continuously reinfecting them with HPV."

Bosch et al / J Clin Pathol 2001 full article
Search "HPV AND Bleeker" / PubMed

Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. X Castellsagué, FX Bosch, N Muñoz, CJ Meijer, KV Shah, S de Sanjose, J Eluf-Neto, CA Ngelangel, S Chichareon, JS Smith, R Herrero, V Moreno, S Franceschi; International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 2002 Apr 11;346(15):1105-1112. 1139 men. 166 (19.6%) of 847 uncircumcised men and 16 (5.5%) of circumcised men had penile HPV DNA, by PCR (odds ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.85). "Monogamous women whose male partners had six or more sexual partners and were circumcised had a lower risk of cervical cancer than women whose partners were uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio, 0.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.79)."

Castellsagué / N Engl J Med 2002 full article

The male role in cervical cancer. X Castellsague, FX Bosch, N Munoz. Salud Publica Mex 2003;45 Suppl 3:S345-353. "Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners."

Castellsague et al - Salud Publica Mex 2003 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus DNA detection in male sexual partners of women with genital human papillomavirus infection. SM Nicolau, CG Camargo, JN Stavale, A Castelo, GB Dores, A Lorincz, GR de Lima. Urology 2005 Feb;65(2):251-255. "Fifty male, stable sexual partners of women positive for HPV DNA by the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test had material brushed from six different anogenital areas for hc2 testing. One week later, patients underwent classic peniscopy, and the lesions were biopsied for histologic analysis and hc2 testing. RESULTS: The brushings were HPV DNA positive in 35 (70%) of the 50 men: 32% in the high-risk HPV group, 14% in the low-risk HPV group, and 24% in both groups. HPV detection per anatomic site was 24% in the glans, 44% in the prepuce internal surface, 30% in the distal urethra, 24% in the prepuce external surface, 12% in the scrotum, and 8% in the anus. Acetowhite lesions were seen in 44 (88%) of the 50 patients. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 27 (26%) of the 104 biopsy specimens, but histologic examination showed evidence of HPV infection in only 14 (13.5%) of 104 biopsy specimens. In 3 (6%) of 50 patients, hc2 was positive only in the histologic examination. Overall, the prevalence of detectable high-risk HPV DNA among male partners was 60% (30 of 50). CONCLUSIONS: Of the 50 male partners studied, 76% were HPV DNA positive. Histologic examination was an inaccurate method to diagnose HPV DNA infection in men; however, brushings detected HPV in 92.1% of the infected men."

Nicolau - Urology 2005 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus proteins are found in peripheral blood and semen Cd20+ and Cd56+ cells during Hpv-16 semen infection. C Foresta, A Bertoldo, A Garolla, D Pizzol, S Mason, A Lenzi, L De Toni. BMC Infect Dis 2013 Dec 16;13(1):593. 16 patients affected by HPV-16 semen infection and 16 controls. HPV-DNA containing-cells "displayed HPV-16-E6 and HPV-16-L1 viral proteins and, upon further investigation, were found to be CD20+ and CD56+, likely phenotypes of B cells and natural killer cells (NK) respectively. In 25% of the patient group, a very small population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was found to be positive for HPV-DNA via FISH. These cells displayed the CD20+ and CD56+ phenotype alike. None of the control subjects displayed HPV-DNA in either semen or peripheral blood."

Foresta / BMC Infect Dis 2013 full article
Foresta - BMC Infect Dis 2013 full article / PubMed Central

Oral and genital HPV genotypic concordance between sexual partners. CM Beder Ribeiro, I Ferrer, AB Santos de Farias, DD Fonseca, IH Morais Silva, LA Monteiro Gueiros, AT Carvalho, SR Porter, JC Leao. Clin Oral Investig 2014 Jan;18(1):261-268. 31 married couples. "HPV-DNA was detected in the penis, vagina/cervix, and oral cavity of 16 couples (51.61 %). Of these, HPV-DNA concordance was observed in 14 couples (87.5 %). HPV-DNA was amplified in penile and oral sites of 14 couples. Of these, 13 couples reported fellatio (92.85 %), most of them (10 couples, 76.9 %) without condom use. HPV-DNA concordance was observed in 7/10 of these couples (70 %). The three couples (100 %) who reported use of condom during fellatio were HPV-DNA discordant (p = 0.025)."

Beder Ribeiro - Clin Oral Investig 2014 abstract / PubMed

Counseling Reduces HPV Persistence in Coinfected Couples. A Garolla, D Pizzol, F Vasoin, L Barzon, A Bertoldo, C Foresta. J Sex Med 2014 Jan;11(1):127-135. "The study was completed by 49 couples. The specific HPV-type concordance among infected couples was 69.4%. Among couples who declared performing oral sex, oropharyngeal infection was 22.7% of couples, and was more prevalent in females than males (18.1% and 4.5%, respectively). Thereafter, couples were randomly divided in two groups: a control group of 24 couples followed up for HPV-related lesions, and an experimental group counseled of 25 couples followed up for HPV-related lesions and counseled to avoid known risk factors for HPV infection. In patients who received counseling, the number of infected sites diminished faster during the follow-up and a higher number of couples had clearance. Only in the counseled group were there no infected couples at the end of the 24-month follow-up period."

Garolla - J Sex Med 2014 abstract / PubMed

Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study. G Albero, X Castellsagué, HY Lin, W Fulp, LL Villa, E Lazcano-Ponce, M Papenfuss, M Abrahamsen, J Salmerón, M Quiterio, AG Nyitray, B Lu, FX Bosch, AR Giuliano. BMC Infect Dis 2014 Feb 10;14(1):75. 4,033 healthy men in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States, examined every six months for about 17.5 months. "The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27)." "[W]hen combining results from all subsites, overall HPV prevalence was similar between circumcised (31%) and uncircumcised (29%) men."

Albero - BMC Infect Dis 2014 full article / PubMed Central
Albero / BMC Infect Dis 2014 full article

Prevalence and determinants of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in male genital warts. SJ Park, J Seo, SH Ha, GW Jung. Korean J Urol 2014 Mar;55(3):207-212. 150 men with genital warts. "High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts."

Park - Korean J Urol 2014 full article / PubMed Central

Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in semen: a systematic review and meta-analysis. C Laprise, H Trottier, P Monnier, F Coutlée, MH Mayrand. Hum Reprod 2014 Apr;29(4):640-651. "The literature search identified 285 studies, and in the 27 studies that were included the HPV DNA prevalence in 4029 semen samples varied from 0 to 100%. The three studies focusing on sperm donors identified HPV DNA in 26.3, 7.5 and 16.0% of semen samples. HPV-16 was the most common type overall. The pooled prevalence in a random effects meta-analysis of seven studies focusing on infertile populations was 16% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10-23%] versus 10% (95% CI: 7-14%) in 11 reports focusing on other populations."

Laprise - Hum Reprod 2014 abstract / PubMed

Analysis of persistence of human papillomavirus infection in men evaluated by sampling multiple genital sites. G Capra, AG Nyitray, B Lu, A Perino, R Marci, R Schillaci, D Matranga, A Firenze, M Caleca, C Bellavia, F Guarneri, A Giuliano, L Giovannelli. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015 Nov;19(21):4153-4163. 50 men. "The median duration of persistence was 21.7 months for any HPV. The median duration of persistence for any HPV type was significantly longer in the penile sample (22.5 months, 95% CI: 18.3-26.7) than the semen sample (15.3 months, 95% CI: 14.5-16.1)."

Capra - Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015 abstract / PubMed

Partner human papillomavirus viral load and incident human papillomavirus detection in heterosexual couples. MK Grabowski, X Kong, RH Gray, D Serwadda, G Kigozi, PE Gravitt, F Nalugoda, SJ Reynolds, MJ Wawer, AD Redd, S Watya, TC Quinn, AA Tobian. J Infect Dis 2016 Mar 15;213(6):948-956. 632 couples. "Incident detection of HPV genotypes was 10.6%(54/508) among men and 9.0%(55/611) among women. Compared to partners with low viral load (grade 1), the relative risk of new HPV detection was increased in women (grade 2 adjRR=1.14,95%CI:0.58-2.27, grade 3 adjRR=1.75;95%CI:0.97-3.17 and grade 4 adjRR=2.52;95%CI:1.40-4.54) and in men (grade 4 adjRR=2.83;95%CI: 1.50-5.33) with a higher partner's viral load. These associations were similar for high- and low-risk genotypes."

Grabowski - J Infect Dis 2015 abstract / PubMed

Assortative mixing as a source of bias in epidemiological studies of sexually transmitted infections: the case of smoking and human papillomavirus. P Lemieux-Mellouki, M Drolet, J Brisson, EL Franco, MC Boily, I Baussano, M Brisson. Epidemiol Infect 2016 May;144(7):1490-1499. Mathematical model with nested cross-sectional study on the smoking-HPV association. The probability of selecting a highly sexually active partner is greater for smokers; thus, "The assortativity bias caused an overestimation of the odds ratio (OR) in the simulated study after perfect adjustment for the subjects' individual-level characteristics (adjusted OR 1·51 instead of 1·00)."

Lemieux-Mellouki - Epidemiol Infect 2015 abstract / PubMed

Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus in Males, United States, 2013–2014. JW Gargano, ER Unger, G Liu, M Steinau, E Meites, E Dunne, LE Markowitz. J Infect Dis 2017 Apr 1;215(7):1070-1079. NHANES. "Prevalence of any HPV was 42.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38.3%–46.1%) and of high-risk (HR) HPV was 23.4% (CI 21.3%–25.6%); prevalences were higher in older age groups through age 25–29, and then similar through age 59. Adjusting for age and race, any HPV prevalence was associated with lifetime sex partners (≥15 vs. 1–2, PR=3.27, CI 2.12–5.02) and past-year partners (≥2 vs. zero, PR=1.26, CI 1.09–1.46)."

Gargano - J Infect Dis 2017 abstract / PubMed
Gargano / J Infect Dis 2017 manuscript

Prevalence and concordance of high-risk papillomavirus infection in male sexual partners of women diagnosed with high grade cervical lesions.E López Diez, S Pérez, A Iñarrea, A de la Orden, M Castro, S Almuster, L Tortolero, M Rodríguez, R Montero, A Ojea. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 May;35(5):273-277. "The prevalence of HR-HPV infection in males was 50.4% (63/125). HPV16/53/52/51/66/31 were the most frequent genotypes (24/10.4/9.6/8.8/8/7.2%, respectively). Current smoking was associated with an increased risk for HR-HPV infection in men (38.2% (21/55) vs 60% (42/70), OR 2.4, p=0.025). Among 60 infected couples, 62% shared at least one genotype... Sexual partners of women with HG-CIN are a significant reservoir and vector of HPV infection, a fact that could contribute to making viral clearance more difficult to achieve in their partners after treatment of their HG-CIN lesions."

López Diez - Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 abstract / PubMed

Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rates Among US Adult Men: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014. JJHan, TH Beltran, JW Song, J Klaric, YS Choi. JAMA Oncol 2017 Jun 1;3(6):810-816. "During the NHANES 2013-2014, a total of 1868 men aged 18 to 59 years were examined. The overall genital HPV infection prevalence was 45.2% (95% CI, 41.3%-49.3%). The infection prevalence with at least 1 high-risk HPV subtype defined by DNA testing was 25.1% (95% CI, 23.0%-27.3%)."

Han - JAMA Oncol 2017 abstract / PubMed

Penile carcinoma

Clinicopathological features and human papillomavirus dna prevalence of warty and squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. AL Bezerra, A Lopes, G Landman, GN Alencar, H Torloni, LL Villa. Am J Surg Pathol 2001 May;25(5):673-678. "HPV deoxyribonucleic acid was more likely to be associated with WC (five of 11, 45.5%) than SCC (16 of 60, 26.7%), although significance was not reached (p = 0.209)."

Bezerra - Am J Surg Pathol 2001 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus hpv-16 DNA as an epitheliotropic virus that induces hyperproliferation in squamous penile tissue. EL Salazar, E Mercado, L Calzada. Arch Androl 2005 Jul-Aug;51(4):327-334. 57 biopsies, 39 typical squamous cell carcinoma and 18 with different subtype. "Thirty-eight biopsies were HPV-16DNA positive. This determination was correlated with cellular differentiation and growth pattern. Our data corroborates that squamous cell carcinoma was invariably associated with HPV-16DNA."

Salazar - Arch Androl 2005 abstract / PubMed

Detection of mucosal human papilloma virus DNA in bowenoid papulosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. N Hama, T Ohtsuka, S Yamazaki. J Dermatol 2006 May;33(5):331-337. "[W]e detected HPV DNA in none of the 17 normal controls, two of the three BP (66.7%), one of the 21 BD (4.8%), and six of the 26 SCC of the skin samples (23.0%). The occurrence rates of HPV in BP and SCC were significantly elevated compared to that of normal controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, the occurrence rate of HPV in BP was significantly elevated compared to that of BD (P < 0.05). The reproducibility was confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with another primer pair. Of the two cases of BP with positive HPV DNA, one case showed HPV 31 and the other case HPV 16. The case of BD with positive HPV DNA showed HPV 31. Of the six cases of SCC with positive HPV DNA, one case showed HPV 16, another case HPV 34, and the other four cases HPV 31. These results showed that mucosal HPV, including HPV 31 and 16, could be detected in SSC of the skin. Mucosal HPV, not only the epidermodysplasia verruciformis type, appear to induce malignant skin tumors."

Hama - J Dermatol 2006 abstract / PubMed

Expression of p16 and hTERT protein is associated with the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus in Bowenoid papulosis. H Liu, K Urabe, Y Moroi, S Yasumoto, H Kokuba, S Imafuku, T Koga, T Masuda, H Aburatani, M Furue, Y Tu. J Cutan Pathol 2006 Aug;33(8):551-558. "Among the 26 biopsy specimens, in situ hybridization using DNA probes for HPV 16/18 revealed positivity in 18 specimens (69.2%), one of which also showed positivity with the probes for HPV 6/11. HPV 31/33/35 was found in three specimens (11.5%). Two specimens (7.7%) were positive for unclassified HPV."

Liu - J Cutan Pathol 2006 abstract / PubMed

The prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in penile cancers from northern Thailand. M Senba, A Kumatori, S Fujita, P Jutavijittum, A Yousukh, T Moriuchi, T Nakamura, K Toriyama. J Med Virol 2006 Oct;78(10):1341-1346. By PCR, HPV DNA was found in 81.5% of cases. High-risk HPV-18 was found in 55.4% of 65 cases (32.3% single and 23.1% multiple infection) followed by the low-risk HPV-6, found in 43.1% of the cases (24.6% single and 18.5% multiple infection).

Senba - J Med Virol 2006 abstract / PubMed

High prevalence of human papillomavirus 16 in penile carcinoma. A Pascual, M Pariente, JM Godinez, R Sanchez-Prieto, M Atienzar, M Segura, E Poblet. Histol Histopathol 2007 Feb;22(2):177-183. "38 of the 49 cases were positive for HPV (77,5%). HPV16 appeared in 32 (84,2 %) of the 38 positive cases and HPV18 in 4 (10,5%)."

Pascual - Histol Histopathol 2007 abstract / PubMed

Demographic and pathologic differences in the incidence of invasive penile cancer in the United States, 1995-2003. MT Goodman, BY Hernandez, YB Shvetsov. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Sep;16(9):1833-1839. 6,539 penile cancers in 29 US population-based registries, 1995-2003. "Squamous cell carcinomas were the most common histologic type of penile cancer, representing 93% of all malignancies. Hispanic men had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates per million for penile cancer (6.58 per million), followed by Blacks (4.02 per million), Whites (3.90 per million), American Indians (2.81 per million), and Asian-Pacific Islanders (2.40 per million)... The incidence of penile cancer was highest in the South (4.42 per million) and lowest in the West (3.28 per million) of the United States. The highest age-adjusted incidence rate was found among Black men in the South (4.77 per million) and the lowest rate among Asian-Pacific Islanders in the West (1.84 per million)."

Goodman -Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus-16 is the predominant type etiologically involved in penile squamous cell carcinoma. DA Heideman, T Waterboer, M Pawlita, P Delis-van Diemen, I Nindl, JA Leijte, JM Bonfrer, S Horenblas, CJ Meijer, PJ Snijders. J Clin Oncol 2007 Oct 10;25(29):4550-4556. "HPV DNA of mucosal and/or cutaneous types was found in 46 of 83 (55%) penile SCCs. HPV16 was the predominant type, appearing in 24 (52%) of 46 of penile SCCs. The majority of HPV16 DNA-positive SCCs (18 of 24; 75%) demonstrated E6 transcriptional activity and a high viral load."

Heideman - J Clin Oncol 2007 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus-associated penile sarcomatoid carcinoma. E Poblet, A Pascual, JM Godínez, M Pariente-Martín, E Escario, DC García-Olmo. J Cutan Pathol 2008 Jun;35(6):559-565. HPV16 and HPV 18 were found in two cases.

Poblet - J Cutan Pathol 2008 abstract / PubMed

Systematic review of human papillomavirus prevalence in invasive penile cancer. DM Backes, RJ Kurman, JM Pimenta, JS Smith. Cancer Causes Control 2009 May;20(4):449-457. Review of 1,266 squamous cell carcinomas from 30 studies. "HPV prevalence was 47.9%, ranging from 22.4% in verrucous SCC to 66.3% for the basaloid/warty subtypes. HPV16 (30.8%), HPV6 (6.7%) and HPV18 (6.6%) were the most prevalent types. HPV16 and/or HPV 18 prevalence was 36.7%."

Backes - Cancer Causes Control 2009 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium. KW D'Hauwers, CE Depuydt, JJ Bogers, JC Noel, P Delvenne, E Marbaix, AR Donders, WA Tjalma. Vaccine 2012 Oct 12;30(46):6573-6577. 55 samples of penile lesions adequate for testing. "Overall HPV DNA was 70.9%: 89.5% in samples of PeIN (n=19) and 61.1% in samples of IPC (n=36). Invasive penile cancer samples were less likely to be HPV infected (p=0.028). HPV 16 was most prevalent: 48.3%: 20% PeIN, and 28.3% IPC. HPV DNA of the types, included in the prophylactic vaccines, was found in 33% of PeIN and 31.7% of IPC samples. Thrice, low risk HPV (lrHPV) types 6 (1 IPC) and 11 (1 PeIN, 1 IPC) were solely present."

D'Hauwers - Vaccine 2012 abstract / PubMed

HPV frequency in penile carcinoma of Mexican patients: important contribution of HPV16 European variant. R López-Romero, C Iglesias-Chiesa, B Alatorre, K Vázquez, P Piña-Sánchez, I Alvarado, M Lazos, R Peralta, B González-Yebra, A Romero, M Salcedo. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2013 Jun 15;6(7):1409-1415. 86 paraffin-embedded penile carcinomas. "Global HPV frequency was 77.9%. Relative contributions was for HPV16 (85%), 31 (4.4%), 11 (4.4%), 58, 33, 18, and 59 (1.4% each one). Sequence analysis of HPV16 identified European variants and Asian-American (AAb-c) variants in 92% and in 8% of the samples, respectively. Furthermore hTERC gene amplification was observed in only 17% of the cases."

López-Romero - Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2013 full article / PubMed Central

Two major pathways of penile carcinogenesis: HPV-induced penile cancers overexpress p16(ink4a), HPV-negative cancers associated with dermatoses express p53, but lack p16(ink4a) overexpression.S Mannweiler, S Sygulla, E Winter, S Regauer. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 Jul;69(1):73-81. 123 invasive penile cancers and 43 pre-invasive lesions. "66 of 72 SCCs and 29 of 43 precursor lesions revealed a single HPV-high-risk-genotype (HPV-HR16 in 76% followed by HPV33, HPV31, HPV45, HPV18, HPV56); 5 of 72 SCCs and 4 of 43 precursor lesions revealed multiple HPV-HR-genotypes."

Mannweiler - J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in invasive penile cancers from a registry-based United States population. BY Hernandez, MT Goodman, ER Unger, M Steinau, A Powers, CF Lynch, W Cozen, MS Saber, ES Peters, EJ Wilkinson, G Copeland, C Hopenhayn, Y Huang, M Watson, SF Altekruse, C Lyu, M Saraiya; HPV Typing of Cancer Workgroup. Front Oncol 2014 Feb 5;4:9. "HPV DNA was present in 50 of 79 (63%) of invasive penile cancer cases. Sixteen viral genotypes were detected. HPV 16, found in 46% (36/79) of all cases (72% of HPV-positive cases) was the most prevalent genotype followed equally by HPV 18, 33, and 45, each of which comprised 5% of all cases. Multiple genotypes were detected in 18% of viral positive cases. HPV prevalence did not significantly vary by age, race/ethnicity, population size of geographic region, cancer stage, histology, grade, penile subsite, or prior cancer history."

Hernandez - Front Oncol 2014 full article / PubMed Central

The molecular fingerprint of human papillomavirus infection and its effect on the Langerhans cell population in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin. JM Rios-Yuil, NE Herrera-Gonzalez, JL Aguilar-Faisal, E Lara-Padilla, P Mercadillo-Perez, LM Moreno-Lopez, AK Marquez-Ramirez, A Saldana-Patino, I Rubio-Gayosso. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2014 Jul-Aug;80(4):381. 34 patients, 75% male. HPV was present in 44.1% of the cases.

Rios-Yuil - Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2014 abstract / PubMed
Rios-Yuil / Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2014 full article

Profiling of Expression of Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer miRNAs in Penile Squamous Cell Carcinomas. L Barzon, R Cappellesso, E Peta, V Militello, A Sinigaglia, M Fassan, F Simonato, V Guzzardo, L Ventura, S Blandamura, M Gardiman, G Palù, A Fassina. Am J Pathol 2014 Dec;184(12):3376-3383. 59 penile squamous cell carcinomas and 8 condylomata. "HR-HPV DNA (HPV16 in most cases) was detected in 17/59 (29%) PSCCs; all penile condylomata (8/8) were positive for low-risk HPV6 or HPV11."

Barzon - Am J Pathol 2014 abstract / PubMed

Prevalence of human papillomavirus in penile malignant tumors: viral genotyping and clinical aspects. ID de Sousa, FC Vidal, JP Branco Vidal, GC de Mello, M do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, LM Brito. BMC Urol 2015 Feb 24;15(1):13. 76 penile carcinomas. "HPV infection was observed in 63.15% of the lesions, and the most common type was HPV 16."

de Sousa - BMC Urol 2015 full article / PubMed Central
de Sousa / BMC Urol 2015 full article

The role of histologic subtype, p16(INK4a) expression, and presence of human papillomavirus DNA in penile squamous cell carcinoma.J Steinestel, A Al Ghazal, A Arndt, TJ Schnoeller, AJ Schrader, P Moeller, K Steinestel. BMC Cancer 2015 Apr 3;15:220. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 29.3% of 58 penile squamous cell carcinomas.

Steinestel - BMC Cancer 2015 full article / PubMed Central
Steinestel / BMC Cancer 2015 full article

Human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and methylation status of p16ink4a in penile cancer. LA Afonso, FN Carestiato, AA Ornellas, P Ornellas, WM Rocha, TI Cordeiro, DC Lisboa, G Alves, S Cavalcanti. J Med Virol 2017 Oct;89(10):1837-1843. 122 cases. "HPV DNA was detected in 63.6% of 122 cases, with HPV16 being the most prevalent type. EBV DNA was detected in 47.7%, with EBV-1 being the most prevalent type. HPV/EBV co-infections were found in 27.3% of the cases."

Afonso - J Med Virol 2017 abstract / PubMed

Etiological Role of Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Development of Penile Cancer. J Sakamoto, K Shigehara, K Nakashima, S Kawaguchi, T Nakashima, M Shimamura, M Yasuda, T Kato, T Hasegawa, Y Kobori, H Okada, T Deguchi, K Izumi, Y Kadono, A Mizokami. Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan;78:148-154. 34 cases. "HPV and high-risk (HR)-HPV were detected in 14 (41.2%; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 24.6-57.7%) and 12 (35.2%; 95%CI, 19.2-51.4%) cases, respectively. HPV16 was the most frequently detected HPV type."

Sakamoto - Int J Infect Dis 2019 abstract / PubMed
Sakamoto - Int J Infect Dis 2019 full article

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Implication on Survival in Chinese Penile Cancer. C Chu, K Chen, X Tan, J Lu, Y Yang, Y Zhang, K Yao, Y Cao. Virchows Arch 2020 May 19 [Epub ahead of print]. "HPV DNA was detected in 32.7% (74/226) of penile cancer cases. The most frequent genotype was HPV 16 (64/74, 86.5%), followed by HPV 18 (6/74, 8.1%)."

Chu - Virchows Arch 2020 abstract / PubMed

Importance of HPV in Chinese Penile Cancer: A Contemporary Multicenter Study. W Gu, P Zhang, G Zhang, J Zhou, X Ding, Q Wang, B Wang, Y Wei, S Jin, D Ye, Y Zhu. Front Oncol 2020 Sep 4;10:1521. Overall HPV prevalence was 48.8% (166/340). 76.5% were HPV16, 15.1% HPV18.

Gu - Front Oncol 2020 abstract / PubMed
Gu / Front Oncol 2020 full article

HPV-Associated Cancers and Socioeconomic Class


For penile cancer, "About 1 out of every 100,000 men who live in counties in which fewer than 10% of residents have an income below the federal poverty level is diagnosed with penile cancer each year. The rate climbs to about 1.3 men per 100,000 in counties in which 10% to less than 20% of residents are below poverty level, and peaks at about 1.6 per 100,000 men in poorer counties." (HPV-Associated Cancers and Poverty Levels, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last updated: November 5, 2008.)

HPV-Associated Cancers and Poverty Levels / CDC

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