The William T. Golden Page

and his business partners, Harold F. Linder and Ralph Hansmann

Golden's father was a wool trader turned banker. In 1931, he went to work as a securities analyst for Harold Linder [who was later the President of General American Investors, and one of the CIA's infamous Princeton Consultants -cast], whom he had met at business school. In World War II, he served in the Navy under Adm. Lewis L. Strauss, who asked him to be his assistant in the newly-formed Atomic Energy Commission [Correspondence between Strauss and Golden in Strauss's papers dates from 1941 -cast]. Golden and Linder were joined by Ralph Hansmann [later a longtime endowment manager and trustee of the Institute for Advanced Study -cast]. And, "Through the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology and Gvoernment, which he led with Joshua Lederberg 10 years ago, Mr. Golden has quietly orchestrated a series of twice-yearly meetings of the science advisors from the developed nations over the last decade." (50 Years of Guiding Policy by Persuasion. By Dennis Overbye. New York Times, 2001 May 1;150(51740):E1.)

50 Years of Guiding Policy / The Lithuanian E-Zine

Golden was President Truman's advisor on scientific research and development in the early 1950s, and Treasurer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1969 to 1999. AAAS has a database of his memoranda, including a "Conversation with Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads, Director, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, and director, Memorial Hospital," Nov. 3, 1950: "He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10. He said he does not know why he has been so invited, but thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it."

Conversation with Rhoads / AAAS

The official version of history which airbrushes out the activities of the Lasker Lobby, particularly Anna Rosenberg Hoffman: "In 1957, President Truman asked Golden to serve as a science consultant to revitalize the executive branch's science and military advising functions and review the government's science activities. Golden's plan to set up office of science advisor and a science advisory commission at the White House was promptly approved by President Truman and was fully implemented by President Eisenhower in 1957, when Soviet gains in space prompted a race by the United States to catch up. He later played a key role in establishment the National Science Foundation, and has had the ear of almost every president since Truman." (William T. Golden to receive Public Welfare Medal, Academy's highest honor. National Academies of Science press release, Oct. 30, 1995.)

Golden Public Welfare Medal, 1995 / National Academies of Science

Commission on the Delivery of Personal Health Services

In 1967, Golden was a member of a special commission appointed by New York Mayor John V. Lindsay to recommend that the city's hospitals and health services be run by a public corporation appointed by the mayor. Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific American, headed the commission, and the other members included Eveline Burns, professor emeritus, Columbia University School of Social Work; Benjamin J. Buttenwieser, investment banker; Leo Gottlieb, lawyer; Francis Kernan, member of the Cardinal's Committee of Laity for New York Catholic Charities; and Thomas R. Wilcox, banker. (New Setup Urged for City Hospitals. By Martin Tolchin. New York Times, Dec. 16, 1967.)

Harvard Medical School

Golden was a member of the Harvard Overseers Committee to Visit the Harvard Medical School and School of Dental Medicine in 1976. Other committee members included Chairman Dr. John H. Knowles, President of the Rockefeller Foundation; Vice-Chairman Maurice Lazarus of Federated Department Stores; Charles C. Edwards, Senior Vice President of Becton Dickinson (also former FDA Commissioner and member of Ernst Wynder's American Health Foundation); Mrs. Eppie Lederer, aka "Ann Landers;" and Dr. Emanuel M. Papper, Vice President for Medical Affairs and Dean of the School of Medicine of the University of Miami, who was a correspondent of Florence Mahoney between 1961 and 1970. Outgoing dean Robert Ebert is pictured on the cover with his successor, Dr. Daniel C. Tosteson, and page 16 notes Julius Richmond leaving the faculty to serve as Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General. (The Harvard Medical School Dean's Report, 1976-1977.)

Harvard Medical School Dean's Report, 1976-1977 / UCSF (pdf 41 pp)


Golden was Treasurer and a director of Science in 1989. Other directors included Beatrix A. Hamburg, David Hamburg's wife; and Walter E. Massey of the RAND Gang, its retiring President and Chairman. Members of the Editorial Board included Elizabeth E. Bailey, a director of Philip Morris; David Baltimore, who was involved in the American Cancer Society's National Commission on Smoking and Public Policy; Philip E. Converse, Director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences from 1989-94; and James D. Watson, of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Lasker Foundation director Daniel E. Koshland Jr. was the Editor. (Science 1989 June 16;244(1440):1229.)

Science, June 16, 1989 / UCSF (pdf, 188 pp)

Guggenheim Foundation

Golden was a Trustee of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation from 1976 to 1981. Other trustees included Frederick Seitz, 1973-83 (Chair 1976-83), W. Clarke Wescoe 1976-91 (Chair 1983-91), Edward E. David Jr. 1982-98, and Charles A. Sanders 1991-96. Malcolm B. Smith, who was President of General American Investors from 1961 to 1989, was a Guggenheim trustee from 1982-1995.

Officers and Trustees / Guggenheim Foundation

The Carnegie Commission

(From "A Brief History of the Carnegie Group's First Three Years, 1990-1992," by D. Allan Bromley. Carnegie Corporation of New York, April 1996.) "In 1988, Carnegie Corporation of New York, led by its president, David A. Hamburg, M.D., established the Carnegie Commission on Science Technology and Government... The co-chairs of the Commission were Joshua Lederberg, president of Rockefeller University, and William T. Golden, chairman of the board of the American Museum of Natural History and a businessman with a long and influential career in national science policy. Of the tweny-two members of the Commission, half were scientists and engineers with governmental experience, and half were nonscientists with particular knowledge and experience in public affairs and science policy... The Commission members were pleased when President Bush chose D. Allan Bromley, the distinguished Yale University physicist, as his science advisor and upgraded the title. The Commission co-chairs and Dr. Hamburg met with Dr. Bromley in August 1989 and discussed some of the suggestions in the Commission report." (Foreword, by David Z. Robinson.)

Bromley was an old crony of Golden's from the board of directors of the AAAS. They decided to convene a meeting of the science advisors of the G-7R nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the US), plus representatives from the European Community and the Soviet Union. Bromley continues: "We also decided that the meeting should be held at an isolated location and that there should be no staff present... As we discussed possible sites for the meeting, both of us thought immediately of the Seven Springs Center at Mount Kisco, New York -- the former estate of the Eugene Meyer family, which had owned the Washington Post and other major U.S. newspapers. Originally the estate had been given to Yale University, together with a generous endowment to cover both its maintenance and upkeep, as well as basic staffing. For reasons that are still very unclear to me, Yale decided that it did not wish to retain the estate, and it was transferred to the Rockefeller University, where Joshua Lederberg was then president. The estate was roughly an hour's drive from the New York airports, was secluded, and provided extremely comfortable quarters for both the social and business aspects of the proposed meeting. President Lederberg recognized the potential of this meeting and immediately made the Seven Springs Center available to us."

Carnegie Group, 1990-1992 / Carnegie Corporation of NY

Risk Management Commentary for Dr. D. Allan Bromley, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology. By R. Hart, C. Starr, and R. Wilson. August 1990.

Risk Management Commentary, 1990 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)

Scientists' Institute for Public Information

In 1993, Golden was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Scientists' Institute for Public Information, an organization which supplies videotape to the mass media. Other trustees included Theodore Cooper (longtime Mary Lasker correspondent), Edward E. David of the Washington Advisory Group, Beatrix Hamburg (wife of Carnegie Corp. president David A. Hamburg), and Mary's old friend Mathilde Krim. (Letter from Barbara Allen of SIPI to Francis D. Gomez of Philip Morris, April 28, 1993, asking for money.)

Allen to Gomez, 1993 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

David Baltimore was Vice Chairman (elected 1988), and William D. Ruckelshaus was a Trustee, in this undated SIPI brochure.

SIPI brochure, no date / UCSF (pdf, 11 pp)

General American Investors

Golden is a Director Emeritus of General American Investors, founded in 1927 by Mary Lasker's longtime correspondent Frank Altschul. Golden's investment consulting partner since 1931, Harold F. Linder, was the president of GAI from 1948 to 1955. Several directors of BioReliance (formerly Microbiological Associates), which has done substantial business with the government, are also directors of GAI. After they took over MA, they used it to concoct a smear against the tobacco industry.

Block Drug Co.

Golden was a director of Block Drug Co. from 1970 until it was acquired by Smithkline Beecham in January 2001. "The following family relationships exist among the directors of the Company: Leonard Block is the father of Thomas R. Block and Peggy Danziger, the uncle of James A. Block, great uncle of Peter M. Block and the grandfather of Michael P. Danziger. James A. Block is the father of Peter M. Block. Thomas R. Block and Peggy Danziger are brother and sister and are first cousins of James A. Block. Michael P. Danziger is the son of Peggy Danziger, grandson of Leonard Block, and nephew of Thomas R. Block."

Block Drug Co. 2000 Form 10-K / Securities and Exchange Commission

New York Academy of Sciences

Golden was honorary life governor, and fellow GAI director Bill Green was a governor-at-large, of the New York Academy of Sciences, which published the Council for Tobacco Research-funded "Diversity of Interacting Receptors," Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 10, Vol. 757, edited by CTR Scientific Advisory Board member Leo G. Abood.

Contents, NY Acad Sci 1995 May 10 / UCSF (pdf, 17 pp)

Golden is an Honorary Life Governor of the New York Academy of Sciences, as is Joshua Lederberg. Lawrence B. Buttenweiser of Rosenman & Colin (Truman advisor Samuel Rosenman's old firm), and a director of General American Investors; and D. Allen Bromley, of the Washington Advisory Group, were on the Board of Governors, Sep. 2001-2002.

Board of Governors / New York Academy of Sciences

Harold F. Linder

Linder's father was Brooklyn surgeon Dr. William Linder, an 1896 graduate of Bellevue Medical College. Two uncles, Dr. John Linder and Dr. Samuel Linder, were also MDs. (Dr. Linder is Dead; Brooklyn Surgeon. New York Times, Aug. 13, 1945, p. 19.) Dr. John Linder's death notice (NYT Jan. 13, 1947) states that he was a brother of "the late Louis" Linder. Could this be the famous Louis Linder of "Mory's," and that anthem of the Office of Strategic Services, "The Whiffenpoof Song"? "Louis Linder Dies at New Haven. NEW HAVEN, Oct. 19. Louis Linder, the proprietor of the Temple Bar, who was known by Yale men for twenty-five years, died today from kidney trouble. His resort was a college centre, and his popularity was attested from the fact that two years ago alumni of New York City gave a banquet at the Yale Club for him, and presented a loving cup to him. He was 47 years old." (New York Times, Oct. 20, 1913.)

In 1933, Harold Linder joined Carl M. Loeb & Co. as a general partner. He left this firm Dec. 31, 1938. Linder purchased a seat on the New York Mercantile Exchange in 1934. In 1934, he was with Cornell, Linder & Co. and joined the Commodity Exchange. In 1935, he was a director of Realty Corporation of New York, founded by former Manufacturers Trust Vice President Walter McMeekan. In 1939, he bought a seat on the New York Stock Exchange for $63,000.

In 1940, he was a member of the executive committee of the Coordinating Foundation headed by former Belgian Premier Paul Van Zeeland, involved in the settlement of Jewish refugees in the Dominican Republic, and he was elected a vice chairman of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. In London in 1945, he coordinated its operations with its British counterpart.

"Succeeds to Presidency Of Investors Company. Harold F. Linder has been elected president of the General American Investors Company, Inc., to succeed Frank Altschul, who becomes chairman of the board. Mr. Altschul, who had been president since the company was formed, will continue as chairman of the executive committee and will be active in the company's affairs. Mr. Linder has been a member of the board since 1945 and of the executive committee since 1946. He is also a director of the National Radiator Company, Interstate Department Stores, Inc., and several other industrial concerns." (New York Times, Oct. 7, 1948, p. 45.) William Golden's brother Barry was a vice president of Interstate who joined that firm in 1946. Linder was President and portfolio manager of General American Investors from 1948 to 1955, then assumed the newly-created post of vice-chairman of the board. Harry G. Friedman, a vice president since 1936 and a director since 1941, succeeded him as president.

About / General American Investors Company Inc.

In 1951, Linder was appointed Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs. He was also elected to the board of directors of the Legal Aid Society. Linder became a trustee of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University in 1949, and in 1957 he was elected chairman of its finance committee and treasurer. (Advanced Study Unit Elects Fiscal Officer. New York Times, June 25, 1957, p. 10.)

"Our Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs at the time was Harold Linder, and Harold Linder spent practically all of his time on this Iranian problem for months. I and members of my staff were in Mr. Linder's office practically all of the time during this time, figuring out various possibilities, alternatives, costs, and things that were involved in working out a final arrangement." (Oral History Interview with Robert H.S. Eakens by Richard D. McKinzie, June 13, 1974.) When things had settled down after the 1953 coup, Lazard Freres (whose partners founded General American Investors) sent partner James S. Adams, who also served as an executive of the American Cancer Society, to establish an investment bank in Iran.

Eakens Interview, 1974 / Harry S. Truman Presidential Library

Institute for Advanced Study trustees Harold F. Linder and Lewis L. Strauss were absent during the board's vote over whether to expell Dr. Robert J. Oppenheimer. Other trustees included Dr. John F. Fulton of the Yale University School of Medicine, Perrin K. Galpin, executive director of the W.T. Grant Foundation; Lloyd K. Garrison, Oppenheimer's attorney; Edward S. Greenbaum, attorney; John M. Hancock, banker and former deputy US delegate to the UN Atomic Energy Commission; Harold K. Hochschild, mining executive; Sen. Herbert H. Lehman, D-NY; Samuel D. Liedesdorf, accountant; Wilmarth S. Lewis, Yale University librarian; Sidney A. Mitchell, banker; Lessing J. Rosenwald, retired merchant; and Michael Schaap, merchant. (Oppenheimer Kept in Institute Post. New York Times, Apr. 14, 1954, p. 19.)

"Interests associated with the New York investment banking firm of Carl M. Loeb, Rhoades & Co. have won control of the Cuban Atlantic Sugar Company by electing six directors. John L. Loeb, senior partner of the firm, was elected a director, chairman of the board of directors and a member of the new executive committee at the meeting of the board yesterday. The board also was increased from ten to eleven members... Mark J. Millard and Clifford W. Michel, also partners of the banking firm, were elected directors of the company. The Loeb, Rhoades group also elected Edgar M. Bronfman, Harold F. Linder, and Stuart N. Scott." Blanco Calas, a Cuban investor, and Richard S. Buell of the law firm McLanahan, Merritt and Ingraham, were also elected. Through its subsidiaries, Cuban Atlantic Sugar controlled the largest sugar properties in Cuba, with about 10% of the country's raw sugar output. (Loeb, Rhoades Interests Take Control of Cuban Atlantic Sugar. New York Times, Dec. 6, 1956, p. 68.) The father of the founder of Rhoades & Co., John Harsen Rhoades Jr., was an executor of the will of Isaac Newton Phelps, a trustee of the Central Trust Company of New York.

"'I want it to be more intimately linked with foreign policy.' That was Harold F. Linder speaking, and referring to the Export-Import Bank. Mr. Linder, the Bank's new president, has had rather intimate foreign policy links of his own. He was Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs in the final years of the Truman Administration, and in the mid-Nineteen Fifties he served on the Central Intelligence Agency's top-level Board of National Estimates." (Eximbank Chief Eyes Foreign Policy Link. By Richard E. Mooney. New York Times, Apr. 9, 1961, p. F1.) Linder resigned from GAI and other corporate interests when he took the position.

Rep. William B. Widnall, ranking Republican on the House Banking and Currency Committee, "noted today that in the last two fiscal years more than 39 per cent of the bank's loans had been for arms purshases... many members believe the bank's new role was instituted through stealth, if not outright deception... Harold F. Linder, head of the bank, said he would have told them about the arms credits if they had asked him." (Arms Sales Facing Congress Inquiry. By EW Kenworthy. New York Times, July 23, 1967, p. 1.) The loans included pass-throughs via the Defense Department, whose recipients were not officially known to the bank. (Pentagon Backs Arms Sale Role. By Joseph A. Loftus. New York Times, Sep. 19, 1967, p. 8.)

Linder was one of CIA's "Princeton Consultants" between 1961 and 1969. "If [Calvin] Hoover's consultancy begins with the Princeton Consultants, then the group's existence stretches back at least to 1953... The Marchetti and Marks description indicates that the Princeton Consultants' work could have served as an intelligence base for the series of brutal and often illegal covert operations of the 1950s and 1960s (and possibly also the 1970s) against the democratically elected or constitutional governments of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran (1953); Patrice Lumumba in the Congo (1961); Joao Goulart in Brazil (1964); Juan Balaguer in the Dominican Republic (1965); Cheddi Jagan in Guyana (1962-66); and Salvadore Allende in Chile (1973). Since it is also known that the Consultants operated during a sizable segment (and possibly all) of the Vietnam War, the question arises whether their 'estimates' of 'enemy intentions' was an input into the CIA's Phoenix Program of torture and assassination which led to the death, between 1968 and 1972, of some 20,000 Vietnamese citizens." (Dulles Papers Reveal CIA Consulting Network. By John Cavanagh. Forerunner, April 29, 1980.)

CIA Consulting Network / CIA On Campus

The Institute for Advanced Study was the envy of the CIA's Sherman Kent, who founded Studies in Intelligence, the CIA's scholarly journal, in 1955. Harold Linder worked in Kent's Office of National Estimates. (A Tribute to Sherman Kent. By Harold P. Ford. Studies in Intelligence, Fall 1980.) "From 1955 to 1956, he was a member of the Board of National Estimates of the Central Intelligence Agency." (Harold Linder Dies; Ran Banking Agency. New York Times, Jun. 24, 1981.)

Sherman Kent / US Central Intelligence Agency

In 1972, the Ford Foundation gave the Institute a $1.5 million challenge grant to establish a new program in social science, to which United Parcel Service's 1907 Foundation responded with $1 million. (Institute in Jersey is Given $1-Million. AP. New York Times, Aug. 4, 1972.)

Ralph Hansmann

Hansmann joined Golden and Linder in 1946. When Harold Linder was elected President and Treasurer of the Institute for Advanced Study circa 1950, he arranged for Hansmann to be named as his assistant. In 1969, Hansmann became its Treasurer and an ex officio Trustee. He was elected Trustee from 1976 to 1988. "Although now retired, Ralph Hansmann commutes several days each week from his New Jersey home to the New York office he still shares with Bill Golden." (Committed Stewardship. Attributions (newsletter of Institute for Advanced Study, 2002 Issue 1. Most of this issue is devoted to the Institute's dedication of Bloomberg Hall, in honor of New York's anti-smoker mayor.)

Attributions, 2002 Issue 1 / Institute for Advanced Study (pdf)

J. Richardson Dilworth

Joseph Richardson Dilworth (1916-1997), Skull & Bones 1938, was a partner in Kohn, Loeb & Co. before becoming financial advisor to the Rockefeller family from 1958 to 1981, and a trustee of Rockefeller University from 1960 to 1991. He was a member of the Yale Corporation from 1959 to 1986. He was on the Board of Trustees of the Institute for Advanced Study from 1964 to 1986, as its President and Vice Chairman from 1976 and Chairman from 1981. He was also a director of the Chrysler Corp., R.H. Macy & Co., Squibb Corp. and other firms. (J. Richardson Dilworth, 81, Philanthropist. New York Times, Dec. 31, 1997.) He was a director of the Chase Manhattan Bank in 1959.

J. Richardson Dilworth / New York Times

Hamish Maxwell

In 1991, Hamish Maxwell was simultaneously the Chairman and CEO of Philip Morris, and a Trustee of the Institute for Advanced Study. (Memorandum from Philip Morris counsel to PM employees for response to shareholder inquiry, March 26, 1992, p. 27.)

PM Shareholder Inquiry Memo / UCSF (pdf, 135 pp)

cast 07-12-10